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CentOS 6.5 x86_64 系统定制自动化部署

[日期:2015-04-05] 来源:Linux社区  作者:skypegnu1 [字体: ]

一、制作环境准备
实验环境:
VMware Workstation
CentOS-6.5-x86_64-minimal 最小化安装
安装后,我们会使用系统 /root 目录下 install.log 和 anaconda-ks.cfg 这两个文件(在此基础上修改比较方便)

1.1 定制步骤
1、安装最小化的操作系统.包括基本的系统和所需要的工具等.
比如:对于http,mysql等软件,建议使用编译的方式安装, 然后打包放进去,可以减少许多依赖包的麻烦.
2、安装系统后,收集系统已安装的软件包,使用脚本统一转存到一个目录中.
3、在安装光盘复制images镜像,从光盘启动centos安装所需的文件等.
4、定义自己的kickstart安装脚本.
5、按照之前转存的软件(rpm)包, 重新生成光盘的report信息.
6、打包生成ISO文件,及MD5效验码.

1.2 安装所需工具包
[root@linuxidc ~]#  yum -y install anaconda repodata createrepo mkisofs rsync

1.3 下载CentOS 6.5镜像

为了方便制作,我们可以在VMware、vbox、xen等虚拟环境中进行安装,这里我们选用了VMware作为制作环境。我们可以在官网或者其他比较近的镜像站点下载CentOS 镜像文件。CentOS-6.4-x86_64-minimal.iso

二、定制系统
2.1 光盘目录结构

*isolinux 目录存放光盘启动时的安装界面信息
*images 目录包括了必要的启动映像文件
*Packages 目录存放安装软件包及信息
*.discinfo 文件是安装价质的识别信息
 
MediaCentOS 目录存放媒体中心安装包
Repodata 目录存放rpm包依赖信息
 
5.x 系列, boot.iso 存在于 images/ 这个目录。
6.x 系列, 存放于 /isolinux 目录下
6.x 网络安装需要在官网下载:netinstall.iso 镜像文件。

2.2 挂载并拷贝文件

目录规划:
挂载目录为: /mnt

定制光盘文件目录: /root/iso

[root@linuxidc ~]# pwd
/root
[root@linuxidc ~]# mkdir iso                            # 建立iso文件制作目录
[root@linuxidc ~]# mkdir -p  ./iso/{Packages,repodata}  # 建立软件包目录和repodata目录 
[root@linuxidc ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt                # 挂载 DVD
mount: block device /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
 
# 拷贝 源DVD镜像中,除了Packages,repodata 目录外的所有文件到 iso 目录
[root@linuxidc ~]# /usr/bin/rsync -a --exclude=Packages --exclude=repodata  /mnt/  ./iso/
[root@linuxidc ~]# ls iso
CentOS_BuildTag  GPL      Packages                  RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6          RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Testing-6
EFI              images    RELEASE-NOTES-en-US.html  RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Debug-6    TRANS.TBL
EULA            isolinux  repodata                  RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Security-6
 
# 参考当前系统的安装包,拷贝
[root@linuxidc ~]# awk '/Installing/ {print $2}' install.log | xargs -i cp /mnt/Packages/{}.rpm  ./iso/Packages/
[root@linuxidc ~]# ls iso/Packages/ | wc -l
205
 
# 执行createrepo程序生成repodata下的comps.xml文件(重要)
#comps.xml 文件中包含了安装时用户所见到的与rpm相关的所有内容,它会检查Packages下
# 的RPM包的依赖关系,安装时如果缺少依赖包,它会提示您哪个RPM 包需要哪些依赖库。
 
[root@linuxidc ~]# pwd
/root
# 编辑 shell 脚本, 并执行
#!/bin/bash
 
ISO_DIR=/root/iso
cd  ${ISO_DIR}
declare -x discinfo=$(head -1 .discinfo)
 
cp  /mnt/repodata/*-minimal-x86_64.xml ${ISO_DIR}/repodata/minimal-x86_64.xml
 
createrepo  -g  ${ISO_DIR}/repodata/minimal-x86_64.xml  ${ISO_DIR}
 
createrepo -u "media://$discinfo" -g ${ISO_DIR}/repodata/*-minimal-x86_64.xml ${ISO_DIR}
 
### 
到这里,comps.xml文件和其他相关联的文件已被重新生成到repodata目录下。
Tips2:如果你新增或删除了Packages目录的RPM包,请重新生成comps.xml文件。


三、制作 ks.cfg 脚本
    ks文件由系统安装所创建的 anaconda-ks.cfg进行修改,当然也可以用system-config-kickstart工具制作而得。这里大家需要根据实际情况进行修改:
默认root用户密码: 123456

静态获取地址

硬盘至少15G

[root@linuxidc ~]# pwd
/root
[root@linuxidc ~]# cp anaconda-ks.cfg  ./iso/isolinux/ks.cfg
[root@linuxidc ~]# vim ./iso/isolinux/ks.cfg
## 请根据实际情况进行调整
 
# Kickstart file automatically generated byanaconda.
 
#version=DEVEL
install
cdrom
lang en_US.UTF-8
keyboard us
network --onboot yes --device eth0 --bootproto static --noipv6 --ip=192.168.3.132 --netmask=255.255.255.0 --gateway=192.168.3.254
rootpw --iscrypted$6$060kt9rryFXbrlgx$WWWNQYLnpz0Es8dTlouy3LXqjTdHIRToojidbpYoZrd2ETOJ.JsNbgnMylQVbFRThPZwSdRKJcrAml7LQDdR00
firewall --service=ssh
authconfig --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512
selinux --disabled
timezone --utc Asia/Chongqing
 
text
firstboot --disable
logging --level=info
reboot
 
 
bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet"
zerombr
 
# The following is the partitioninformation you requested
# Note that any partitions you deleted arenot expressed
# here so unless you clear all partitionsfirst, this is
# not guaranteed to work
#clearpart --none
 
#part /boot --fstype=ext4 --size=200
#part swap --size=2048
#part / --fstype=ext4 --grow --size=200
 
clearpart --all --initlabel
part /boot --fstype=ext4 --size=200
part swap --size=2048
part / --fstype=ext4 --size=10240
part /data --fstype=ext4 --size=1 --grow
 
# repo --name="CentOS"  --baseurl=cdrom:sr0 --cost=100
 
%packages --nobase
@core
%end


四、修改 isolinux.cfg 配置文件,指定 ks 路径
注意,编辑这个文件,需要强制保存。 :wq!
[root@linuxidc ~]# vi ./iso/isolinux/isolinux.cfg
 
default vesamenu.c32
#prompt 1
timeout 600
 
display boot.msg
 
menu background splash.jpg
menu title Welcome to CentOS 6.5!
menu color border 0 #ffffffff #00000000
menu color sel 7 #ffffffff #ff000000
menu color title 0 #ffffffff #00000000
menu color tabmsg 0 #ffffffff #00000000
menu color unsel 0 #ffffffff #00000000
menu color hotsel 0 #ff000000 #ffffffff
menu color hotkey 7 #ffffffff #ff000000
menu color scrollbar 0 #ffffffff #00000000
 
label linux
  menu label ^Install or upgrade an existing system
  menu default
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img ks=cdrom:/isolinux/ks.cfg    # 仅修改这里即可
label vesa
  menu label Install system with ^basic video driver
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img xdriver=vesa nomodeset
label rescue
  menu label ^Rescue installed system
  kernel vmlinuz
  append initrd=initrd.img rescue
label local
  menu label Boot from ^local drive
  localboot 0xffff
label memtest86
  menu label ^Memory test
  kernel memtest
  append -

五、生成iso镜像,并生成 MD5校验码
## 注意所在的目录
[root@linuxidc ~]# pwd
/root
[root@linuxidc ~]# cd iso
[root@linuxidc iso]# pwd
/root/iso
[root@linuxidc iso]# mkisofs -o CentOS-6.4_64.iso -input-charset utf-8 -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -R -J -v -T -joliet-long  /root/iso
 
genisoimage 1.1.9 (Linux)
Scanning /root/iso
Excluded: /root/iso/TRANS.TBL
Scanning /root/iso/repodata
Scanning /root/iso/isolinux
Excluded: /root/iso/isolinux/TRANS.TBL
Excluded by match: /root/iso/isolinux/boot.cat
Scanning /root/iso/EFI
Excluded: /root/iso/EFI/TRANS.TBL
Scanning /root/iso/EFI/BOOT
Excluded: /root/iso/EFI/BOOT/TRANS.TBL
Scanning /root/iso/images
Excluded: /root/iso/images/TRANS.TBL
Scanning /root/iso/images/pxeboot
Excluded: /root/iso/images/pxeboot/TRANS.TBL
Scanning /root/iso/Packages
Using RPM_G000.;1 for  /RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Debug-6 (RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Security-6)
Using RPM_G001.;1 for  /RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Security-6 (RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6)
Using RPM_G002.;1 for  /RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6 (RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Testing-6)
Using CE2D6000.GZ;1 for  /root/iso/repodata/ce2d698b9fb1413b668443e88835a0642cea8f387c7f25cc946f56dd93f109bb-34bae2d3c9c78e04ed2429923bc095005af1b166d1a354422c4c04274bae0f59-minimal-x86_64.xml.gz (ce2d698b9fb1413b668443e88835a0642cea8f387c7f25cc946f56dd93f109bb-minimal-x86_64.xml.gz)
Using NSS_S000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/nss-softokn-freebl-3.14.3-9.el6.x86_64.rpm (nss-softokn-3.14.3-9.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using OPENS000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/openssh-5.3p1-94.el6.x86_64.rpm (openssh-clients-5.3p1-94.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using DEVIC000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/device-mapper-persistent-data-0.2.8-2.el6.x86_64.rpm (device-mapper-event-libs-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using FIPSC000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/fipscheck-1.2.0-7.el6.x86_64.rpm (fipscheck-lib-1.2.0-7.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using DEVIC001.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/device-mapper-event-libs-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm (device-mapper-multipath-libs-0.4.9-72.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using CRYPT000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/cryptsetup-luks-1.2.0-7.el6.x86_64.rpm (cryptsetup-luks-libs-1.2.0-7.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using DEVIC002.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/device-mapper-multipath-libs-0.4.9-72.el6.x86_64.rpm (device-mapper-libs-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using IPTAB000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/iptables-1.4.7-11.el6.x86_64.rpm (iptables-ipv6-1.4.7-11.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using LIBSE000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/libselinux-utils-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64.rpm (libselinux-2.0.94-5.3.el6_4.1.x86_64.rpm)
Using NCURS000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/ncurses-libs-5.7-3.20090208.el6.x86_64.rpm (ncurses-5.7-3.20090208.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using DEVIC003.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/device-mapper-libs-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm (device-mapper-event-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using DEVIC004.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/device-mapper-event-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm (device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-72.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using NCURS001.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/ncurses-5.7-3.20090208.el6.x86_64.rpm (ncurses-base-5.7-3.20090208.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using SELIN000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/selinux-policy-3.7.19-231.el6.noarch.rpm (selinux-policy-targeted-3.7.19-231.el6.noarch.rpm)
Using E2FSP000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/e2fsprogs-libs-1.41.12-18.el6.x86_64.rpm (e2fsprogs-1.41.12-18.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using COREU000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/coreutils-8.4-31.el6.x86_64.rpm (coreutils-libs-8.4-31.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using CYRUS000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/cyrus-sasl-2.1.23-13.el6_3.1.x86_64.rpm (cyrus-sasl-lib-2.1.23-13.el6_3.1.x86_64.rpm)
Using P11_K000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/p11-kit-trust-0.18.5-2.el6.x86_64.rpm (p11-kit-0.18.5-2.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using OPENS001.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/openssh-clients-5.3p1-94.el6.x86_64.rpm (openssh-server-5.3p1-94.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using PLYMO000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/plymouth-core-libs-0.8.3-27.el6.centos.x86_64.rpm (plymouth-0.8.3-27.el6.centos.x86_64.rpm)
Using CRACK000.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/cracklib-dicts-2.8.16-4.el6.x86_64.rpm (cracklib-2.8.16-4.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using DEVIC005.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-72.el6.x86_64.rpm (device-mapper-1.02.79-8.el6.x86_64.rpm)
Using PLYMO001.RPM;1 for  /root/iso/Packages/plymouth-0.8.3-27.el6.centos.x86_64.rpm (plymouth-scripts-0.8.3-27.el6.centos.x86_64.rpm)
Writing:  Initial Padblock                        Start Block 0
Done with: Initial Padblock                        Block(s)    16
Writing:  Primary Volume Descriptor              Start Block 16
Done with: Primary Volume Descriptor              Block(s)    1
Writing:  Eltorito Volume Descriptor              Start Block 17
Size of boot image is 4 sectors -> No emulation
Done with: Eltorito Volume Descriptor              Block(s)    1
Writing:  Joliet Volume Descriptor                Start Block 18
Done with: Joliet Volume Descriptor                Block(s)    1
Writing:  End Volume Descriptor                  Start Block 19
Done with: End Volume Descriptor                  Block(s)    1
Writing:  Version block                          Start Block 20
Done with: Version block                          Block(s)    1
Writing:  Path table                              Start Block 21
Done with: Path table                              Block(s)    4
Writing:  Joliet path table                      Start Block 25
Done with: Joliet path table                      Block(s)    4
Writing:  Directory tree                          Start Block 29
Done with: Directory tree                          Block(s)    27
Writing:  Joliet directory tree                  Start Block 56
Done with: Joliet directory tree                  Block(s)    18
Writing:  Directory tree cleanup                  Start Block 74
Done with: Directory tree cleanup                  Block(s)    0
Writing:  Extension record                        Start Block 74
Done with: Extension record                        Block(s)    1
Writing:  The File(s)                            Start Block 75
  2.48% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:32 2015
  4.95% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:12 2015
  7.43% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
  9.90% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:02 2015
 12.37% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 14.85% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 17.32% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:03 2015
 19.80% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:07 2015
 22.28% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:09 2015
 24.75% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 27.22% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:06 2015
 29.69% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 32.17% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:07 2015
 34.64% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:06 2015
 37.12% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 39.59% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:07 2015
 42.07% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 44.54% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:07 2015
 47.02% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:06 2015
 49.49% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 51.97% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:09 2015
 54.44% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 56.91% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:09 2015
 59.39% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 61.86% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:09 2015
 64.34% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:09 2015
 66.81% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:08 2015
 69.29% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:07 2015
 71.76% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:07 2015
 74.24% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:06 2015
 76.71% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:06 2015
 79.18% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 81.66% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 84.14% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 86.61% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 89.09% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 91.56% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:06 2015
 94.04% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 96.51% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
 98.98% done, estimate finish Sat Apr  4 23:51:05 2015
Total translation table size: 63812
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 28361
Total directory bytes: 49152
Path table size(bytes): 112
Done with: The File(s)                            Block(s)    201838
Writing:  Ending Padblock                        Start Block 201913
Done with: Ending Padblock                        Block(s)    150
Max brk space used 5e000
202063 extents written (394 MB)
 
## OK, 此时会在 /root/iso 目录创建一个名为CentOS-6.4_64.iso 的镜像文件
[root@linuxidc iso]# ls *.iso
CentOS-6.4_64.iso
 
### MD5 校验码
[root@linuxidc iso]# pwd
/root/iso
[root@linuxidc iso]# ls
CentOS-6.4_64.iso  EULA    isolinux                  repodata                    RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Security-6
CentOS_BuildTag    GPL    Packages                  RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6        RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Testing-6
EFI                images  RELEASE-NOTES-en-US.html  RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Debug-6  TRANS.TBL
 
[root@linuxidc iso]# /usr/bin/implantisomd5 CentOS-6.4_64.iso
Inserting md5sum into iso image...
md5 = 90d069e78dddfb79877b4ab346ff2d50
Inserting fragment md5sums into iso image...
fragmd5 = 16b043bf617895ecdee76fae52dfa8c926525e3a645ae1bf96f259a5e895
frags = 20
Setting supported flag to 0
[root@linuxidc iso]#

六、安装测试
    可以通过 Filezilla ,winscp  等软件把 iso 镜像传出来。然后可以通过虚拟机安装测试,如果测试没有问题,那么就可以刻录成光盘了。
    通过 VMware Workstation 创建虚拟机,然后使用刚才我们创建的镜像。然后启动虚拟机,就会自动安装了。是不是 so easy ...

CentOS 6.5 x86_64 系统定制自动化部署

CentOS 6.5 配置IP地址的三种方法  http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2015-03/114990.htm

更多CentOS相关信息见CentOS 专题页面 http://www.linuxidc.com/topicnews.aspx?tid=14

本文永久更新链接地址http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2015-04/115808.htm

linux
相关资讯       CentOS 6.5  CentOS 6.5 x86_64 
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第 1 楼
* wenfan120会员 发表于 2015/5/15 14:29:44
亲,照的你方法去做。制作过程一切顺利。但在虚拟机上安装制作成功的ISO文件里,报错提示为:unbale to read group information from repositeries.this is problem with the generation of your install tree.
一直找不到解决的方法,请大大给说予明示~~