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Linux 磁盘分区、格式化、目录挂载

[日期:2015-09-02] 来源:Linux社区  作者:jyzhao [字体: ]

实验环境: Citrix虚拟化, RHEL6.4系统环境
本文目的: 熟悉Linux的基本磁盘分区、格式化、目录挂载。

1.显示当前主机目录
2.磁盘分区
3.磁盘格式化
4.挂载目录

1. 显示当前主机目录

命令df -h
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
                      26G  2.9G  22G  13% /
tmpfs                1.9G    0  1.9G  0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvda1            485M  32M  428M  7% /boot

2. 磁盘分区

2.1 显示机器当前的磁盘:

命令fdisk -l
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l /dev/xvdb

Disk /dev/xvdb: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6527 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

注:这里知道新增磁盘为/dev/xvdb,就直接指定了,缩减显示篇幅。

2.2 fdisk 分区 /dev/xvdb:

fdisk /dev/xvdb 根据帮助提示分区,这里是把/dev/xvdb分成一个区.
[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x0adfd119.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
        switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
        sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): m
Command action
  a  toggle a bootable flag
  b  edit bsd disklabel
  c  toggle the dos compatibility flag
  d  delete a partition
  l  list known partition types
  m  print this menu
  n  add a new partition
  o  create a new empty DOS partition table
  p  print the partition table
  q  quit without saving changes
  s  create a new empty Sun disklabel
  t  change a partition's system id
  u  change display/entry units
  v  verify the partition table
  w  write table to disk and exit
  x  extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): n
Command action
  e  extended
  p  primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-6527, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-6527, default 6527):
Using default value 6527

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/xvdb: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6527 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0adfd119

    Device Boot      Start        End      Blocks  Id  System
/dev/xvdb1              1        6527    52428096  83  Linux

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

3. 磁盘格式化

命令mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1分区为ext4的文件系统格式。
[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
3276800 inodes, 13107024 blocks
655351 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
400 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424

Writing inode tables: done                           
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 28 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

4.挂载目录

4.1 手工挂载

新建目录/u01mkdir -p /u01
挂载设备到目录/u01mount /dev/xvdb1 /u01
[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p /u01
[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/xvdb1 /u01

4.2 开机自动挂载

修改/etc/fstab配置文件,末尾添加一行:
/dev/xvdb1              /u01                    ext4    defaults        0 0

显示当前目录,已成功挂载/u01目录:
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
                      26G  2.9G  22G  13% /
tmpfs                1.9G    0  1.9G  0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvda1            485M  32M  428M  7% /boot
/dev/xvdb1            50G  180M  47G  1% /u01

本文永久更新链接地址http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2015-09/122607.htm

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