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Python获取Linux或Windows系统的基本信息

[日期:2017-02-10] 来源:Linux社区  作者:dgd2010 [字体: ]

前面写了一篇名为《利用Python脚本获取Windows和Linux的系统版本信息》,本篇利用这篇文章中的知识提供一个增强版本的获取信息的Python脚本。执行后,看起来就像登录Ubuntu Linux系统时提示的motd信息一样,可以看到: 

  1. 系统的类型、发行版本(具体信息)、内核版本等
  2. 当前系统的时间、时区
  3. 系统每一个CPU核心的负载和CPU整体负载
  4. 进程数量
  5. 根分区的磁盘空间,Windows下默认C盘
  6. 登录的用户总数和每一个登录到系统的用户的信息
  7. 内存和交换分区的利用率
  8. 默认网卡的IP地址
  9. 系统启动时间和已运行时间 

运行截图如下: 

(1)Linux下截图: 

Python获取Linux或Windows系统的基本信息

(2)Windows下截图:

Python获取Linux或Windows系统的基本信息

Python代码如下:

#!/usr/bin/python
# encoding: utf-8
# -*- coding: utf8 -*-
"""
Created by PyCharm.
File:              LinuxBashShellScriptForOps:getSystemStatus.py
User:              Guodong
Create Date:        2016/8/18
Create Time:        15:32
 """
import platform
import psutil
import subprocess
import os
import sys
import time
import re
import prettytable
 
mswindows = (sys.platform == "win32")  # learning from 'subprocess' module
linux = (sys.platform == "linux2")
 
 
def getLocalIP():
    import netifaces
    routingNicName = netifaces.gateways()['default'][netifaces.AF_INET][1]
    for interface in netifaces.interfaces():
        if interface == routingNicName:
            try:
                routingIPAddr = netifaces.ifaddresses(interface)[netifaces.AF_INET][0]['addr']
                return interface, routingIPAddr
            except KeyError:
                pass
 
 
def getUser():
    if linux:
        proc_obj = subprocess.Popen(r'tty', shell=True, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                                    stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
        tty = proc_obj.communicate()[0]
    else:
        tty = []
 
    user_object = psutil.users()
 
    for login in user_object:
        username, login_tty, login_host, login_time = [SUSEr for suser in login]
        print username, login_tty, login_host, time.strftime('%b %d %H:%M:%S', time.localtime(login_time)),
        if login_tty in tty:
            print '**current user**'
        else:
            print
 
 
def getTimeZone():
    return time.strftime("%Z", time.gmtime())
 
 
def getTimeNow():
    now = time.strftime('%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y %Z', time.localtime(time.time()))
    return now
 
 
def printHeader():
    if linux:
        try:
            with open('/etc/issue') as f:
                content = f.read().strip()
                output_list = re.split(r' \\', content)
                linux_type = list(output_list)[0]
        except IOError:
            pass
        else:
            if linux_type is not None:
                return "Welcome to %s (%s %s %s)\n  System information as of %s" % (
                    linux_type, platform.system(), platform.release(), platform.machine(), getTimeNow()
                )
            else:
                return
    if mswindows:
        def get_system_encoding():
            import codecs
            import locale
            """
            The encoding of the default system locale but falls back to the given
            fallback encoding if the encoding is unsupported by python or could
            not be determined.  See tickets #10335 and #5846
            """
            try:
                encoding = locale.getdefaultlocale()[1] or 'ascii'
                codecs.lookup(encoding)
            except Exception:
                encoding = 'ascii'
            return encoding
 
        DEFAULT_LOCALE_ENCODING = get_system_encoding()
 
        import _winreg
        try:
            reg_key = _winreg.OpenKey(_winreg.HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, "SOFTWARE\\Microsoft\\Windows NT\\CurrentVersion")
            if reg_key:
                ProductName = _winreg.QueryValueEx(reg_key, "ProductName")[0] or None
                EditionId = _winreg.QueryValueEx(reg_key, "EditionId")[0] or None
                ReleaseId = _winreg.QueryValueEx(reg_key, "ReleaseId")[0] or None
                BuildLabEx = _winreg.QueryValueEx(reg_key, "BuildLabEx")[0][:9] or None
                return "%s, %s [%s]\r\nVersion %s (OS Internal Version %s)" % (
                    ProductName, EditionId, platform.version(), ReleaseId, BuildLabEx)
        except Exception as e:
            print e.message.decode(DEFAULT_LOCALE_ENCODING)
 
 
def getHostname():
    return platform.node()
 
 
def getCPU():
    return [x / 100.0 for x in psutil.cpu_percent(interval=0, percpu=True)]
 
 
def getLoadAverage():
    if linux:
        import multiprocessing
        k = 1.0
        k /= multiprocessing.cpu_count()
        if os.path.exists('/proc/loadavg'):
            return [float(open('/proc/loadavg').read().split()[x]) * k for x in range(3)]
        else:
            tokens = subprocess.check_output(['uptime']).split()
            return [float(x.strip(',')) * k for x in tokens[-3:]]
    if mswindows:
        # print psutil.cpu_percent()
        # print psutil.cpu_times_percent()
        # print psutil.cpu_times()
        # print psutil.cpu_stats()
        return "%.2f%%" % psutil.cpu_percent()
 
 
def getMemory():
    v = psutil.virtual_memory()
    return {
        'used': v.total - v.available,
        'free': v.available,
        'total': v.total,
        'percent': v.percent,
    }
 
 
def getVirtualMemory():
    v = psutil.swap_memory()
    return {
        'used': v.used,
        'free': v.free,
        'total': v.total,
        'percent': v.percent
    }
 
 
def getUptime():
    uptime_file = "/proc/uptime"
    if os.path.exists(uptime_file):
        with open(uptime_file, 'r') as f:
            return f.read().split(' ')[0].strip("\n")
    else:
        return time.time() - psutil.boot_time()
 
 
def getUptime2():
    boot_time = time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", time.localtime(psutil.boot_time()))
    print "system start at: %s" % boot_time,
    uptime_total_seconds = time.time() - psutil.boot_time()
    uptime_days = int(uptime_total_seconds / 24 / 60 / 60)
    uptime_hours = int(uptime_total_seconds / 60 / 60 % 24)
    uptime_minutes = int(uptime_total_seconds / 60 % 60)
    uptime_seconds = int(uptime_total_seconds % 60)
    print "uptime: %d days %d hours %d minutes %d seconds" % (uptime_days, uptime_hours, uptime_minutes, uptime_seconds)
 
    user_number = len(psutil.users())
    print "%d user:" % user_number
    print "  \\"
    for user_tuple in psutil.users():
        user_name = user_tuple[0]
        user_terminal = user_tuple[1]
        user_host = user_tuple[2]
        user_login_time = time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", time.localtime(user_tuple[3]))
        print "  |- user online: %s, login from %s with terminal %s at %s" % (
            user_name, user_host, user_terminal, user_login_time)
 
    cpu_count = psutil.cpu_count()
    try:
        with open('/proc/loadavg', 'r') as f:
            loadavg_c = f.read().split(' ')
            loadavg = dict()
            if loadavg_c is not None:
                loadavg['lavg_1'] = loadavg_c[0]
                loadavg['lavg_5'] = loadavg_c[1]
                loadavg['lavg_15'] = loadavg_c[2]
                loadavg['nr'] = loadavg_c[3]
                loadavg['last_pid'] = loadavg_c[4]
        print "load average: %s, %s, %s" % (loadavg['lavg_1'], loadavg['lavg_5'], loadavg['lavg_15'])
        if float(loadavg['lavg_15']) > cpu_count:
            print "Note: cpu 15 min load is high!"
        if float(loadavg['lavg_5']) > cpu_count:
            print "Note: cpu 5 min load is high!"
        if float(loadavg['lavg_1']) > cpu_count:
            print "Note: cpu 1 min load is high!"
    except IOError:
        pass
 
 
if __name__ == '__main__':
    header = printHeader()
    print header
    print
 
    system_load = str(getLoadAverage()).strip("[]")
    user_logged_in = len(psutil.users())
    info_of_root_partition = psutil.disk_usage("/")
    percent_of_root_partition_usage = "%.2f%%" % (
        float(info_of_root_partition.used) * 100 / float(info_of_root_partition.total))
    total_size_of_root_partition = "%.2f" % (float(psutil.disk_usage("/").total / 1024) / 1024 / 1024)
    memory_info = getMemory()
    memory_usage = "%.2f%%" % (float(memory_info['used']) * 100 / float(memory_info['total']))
    swap_info = getVirtualMemory()
    swap_usage = "%.2f%%" % (float(swap_info['used']) * 100 / float(swap_info['total']))
    local_ip_address = getLocalIP()
 
    table = prettytable.PrettyTable(border=False, header=False, left_padding_width=2)
    table.field_names = ["key1", "value1", "key2", "value2"]
    table.add_row(["System load:", system_load, "Processes:", len(list(psutil.process_iter()))])
    table.add_row(["Usage of /:", "%s of %sGB" % (percent_of_root_partition_usage, total_size_of_root_partition),
                  "Users logged in:", user_logged_in])
    table.add_row(["Memory usage:", memory_usage, "IP address for %s:" % local_ip_address[0], local_ip_address[1]])
    table.add_row(["Swap usage:", swap_usage, "", ""])
    for field in table.field_names:
        table.align[field] = "l"
 
    print table.get_string()
    print
    getUser()
    print
    getUptime2()

注:脚本内容可以到Linux公社资源站下载:

------------------------------------------分割线------------------------------------------

免费下载地址在 http://linux.linuxidc.com/

用户名与密码都是www.linuxidc.com

具体下载目录在 /2017年资料/2月/10日/Python获取Linux或Windows系统的基本信息/

下载方法见 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-07/87684.htm

------------------------------------------分割线------------------------------------------

已知存在问题:

  1. 暂时未实现获取Windows下网卡的中文可视名称
  2. Windows下的tty名称默认为None,暂时没有设置对用户友好的显示
  3. Ubuntu Linux上motd信息的用户登录数量显示为同一用户同一个IP的多个用户视为同一用户,脚本中视为不同用户
  4. 首次运行可能需要安装依赖的地方库,如psutil、platform、prettytable、netifaces等,请使用easy_install、pip、conda等安装。
  5. 其他的因为时间原因未指出和未实现的问题,欢迎在文章下面评论留言和在GitHub上提issue

--end--

本文永久更新链接地址http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-02/140490.htm

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