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使用yum安装cmake

[日期:2017-02-27] 来源:Linux社区  作者:YingYue [字体: ]

一、搜索yum源中的CMake,查看源中最新的版本是什么,使用命令[root@localhost ~]# yum search cmake ,如果搜索出的结果过多可以配合grep命令来控制搜索结果。

[root@localhost ~]# yum search cmake
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.yun-idc.com
 * extras: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn
 * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn
============================================== N/S Matched: cmake ================================================
 cmake-gui.i686 : Qt GUI for cmake cmake.i686 : Cross-platform make system Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.
[root@localhost ~]#

二、查看yum源中的cmake版本

[root@localhost ~]# yum list cmake | grep cmake
cmake.i686              2.8.12.2-4.el6               @base
[root@localhost ~]#

三、查看yum源中的cmake安装包的cmake二进制文件(即:cmake命令)安装到系统中的真实目录,安装后可以通过which或whereis命令查看。

[root@localhost ~]# yum provides */cmake
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.163.com
 * extras: mirrors.163.com
 * updates: mirrors.163.com
6:kdelibs-devel-4.3.4-28.el6.i686 : Header files for compiling KDE 4 applications
Repo        : base
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/share/kde4/apps/cmake

......

soprano-2.3.1-1.2.el6.i686 : Qt wrapper API to different RDF storage solutions
Repo        : base
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/share/soprano/cmake

cmake-2.8.12.2-4.el6.i686 : Cross-platform make system
Repo        : base
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/share/cmake/completions/cmake
Filename    : /usr/share/cmake
Filename    : /usr/bin/cmake

[root@localhost ~]#

从上面的记录可知yum源中的cmake包中的cmake命令会安装在/usr/bin目录,在yum安装jdk时javac和java等命令其实不是在/usr/bin 目录下。

执行命令 yum provides */javac 或 yum provides */java 结果如下:

[root@localhost ~]# yum provides */javac
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.163.com
 * extras: mirrors.163.com
 * updates: mirrors.163.com
1:java-1.7.0-openjdk-javadoc-1.7.0.99-2.6.5.1.el6.noarch : OpenJDK API Documentation
Repo        : base
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/share/javadoc/java-1.7.0-openjdk/jdk/api/javac

......

1:java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel-1.8.0.121-0.b13.el6_8.i686 : OpenJDK Development Environment
Repo        : installed
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.121-0.b13.el6_8.i386/bin/javac

[root@localhost ~]#

发现其实是安装到/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.121-0.b13.el6_8.i386/bin 目录下

1:java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel-1.8.0.121-0.b13.el6_8.i686 : OpenJDK Development Environment
Repo        : installed
Matched from:
Filename    : /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.121-0.b13.el6_8.i386/bin/javac

但是使用which和whereis命令查看发现是 /usr/bin目录,为啥?原因是通过alternatives映射,第五步中会有详细解释。

[root@localhost ~]# which javac
/usr/bin/javac
[root@localhost ~]# whereis javac
javac: /usr/bin/javac /usr/share/man/man1/javac.1.gz
[root@localhost ~]#

四、执行yum -y install cmake 命令安装 cmake-2.8.12.2-4

[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install cmake
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.yun-idc.com
 * extras: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn
 * updates: ftp.sjtu.edu.cn
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package cmake.i686 0:2.8.12.2-4.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

===================================================================================================================
 Package                                  Arch            Version                    Repository             Size
===================================================================================================================
Installing:
 cmake                                    i686            2.8.12.2-4.el6             base                   8.0 M
Transaction Summary
===================================================================================================================
Install       1 Package(s)

Total download size: 8.0 M
Installed size: 28 M
Downloading Packages:
cmake-2.8.12.2-4.el6.i686.rpm                                                                   | 8.0 MB     00:11
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing : cmake-2.8.12.2-4.el6.i686                                                        1/1 
  Verifying  : cmake-2.8.12.2-4.el6.i686                                                        1/1 

Installed:
  cmake.i686 0:2.8.12.2-4.el6

Complete!
[root@localhost ~]#

查看是否安装成功使用命令yum命令或rpm命令都是可以的如下:

使用yum 命令查看

[root@localhost ~]# yum list installed | grep cmake
cmake.i686                2.8.12.2-4.el6  @base                                 
[root@localhost ~]# 

已经安装成功了。

使用rpm命令查看

[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa | grep cmake
cmake-2.8.12.2-4.el6.i686
[root@localhost ~]# 

也是可以的。

五、配置环境变量,通过上面的第三步的yum provides */cmak 命令可以看到cmke命令确实是安装在 /usr/bin 目录下所以不需要独配置环境变量直接执行cmake -version 查看cmake版本,源码安装的cmake是需要配置环境变量的。

[root@localhost ~]# cmake -version
cmake version 2.8.12.2
[root@localhost ~]#

也不是所有采用yum安装的程序都会可执行二进制文件都会默认安装到 /usr/bin 下,例如yum安装jdk时可执行的二进制文件或命令都放在/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk-1.8.0.121-0.b13.el6_8.i386/bin 下,执行java -version 也是可以的,为什么?因为在alternatives中注册,在/etc/alternatives目录下会产生一些链接到/usr/lib/jvm/中刚安装好的jdk版本。

===================================================================================================================

注:因为采用yum安装jdk,系统考虑到多版本的问题,会用alternatives进行版本控制。开始,相应版本的jdk安装在/usr/lib/jvm/之后,会在alternatives中注册,在/etc/alternatives目录下会产生一些链接到/usr/lib/jvm/中刚安装好的jdk版本。链接如下:

/usr/bin/java -> /etc/alternatives/java
/etc/alternatives/java -> /usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.8.0-openjdk.i386/bin/java

为什么?

因为在/usr/bin下面会有链接到/etc/alternatives的相应的文件。通过ls -l 命令查看映射关系。使用ls命令查看文件如果查看指定文件名并且不止一个文件时ls -l [file1 file2 file3 ...]

[root@localhost bin]# ls -l  /usr/bin/java /usr/bin/javac
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 22 Feb 25 16:17 /usr/bin/java -> /etc/alternatives/java
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 23 Feb 25 16:17 /usr/bin/javac -> /etc/alternatives/javac
[root@localhost bin]# ls -l  /etc/alternatives/java /etc/alternatives/javac
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 44 Feb 25 16:17 /etc/alternatives/java -> /usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.8.0-openjdk.i386/bin/java
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 46 Feb 25 16:17 /etc/alternatives/javac -> /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk.i386/bin/javac
[root@localhost bin]#

根据上面的信息追踪发现/usr/bin/java 下的java二进制命令是通过alternatives映射到了/usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.8.0-openjdk.i386/bin下的java二进制文件。

这样,java命令不用设置环境变量,就可以正常运行了。但如果对于tomcat或其他软件来说还是要设置环境变量。
同样,如果安装新的版本jdk,就会重新链接到最新安装的jdk版本。当然,也可以使用alternatives修改所要使用的版本。

本文永久更新链接地址http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-02/141089.htm

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