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MySQL5.7.12新密码登录方式及密码策略

[日期:2017-05-12] 来源:Linux社区  作者:jonsea [字体: ]

CentOS6.6上安装MySQL5.7.12时,遇到了一个问题

安装后在/root目录下没有发现有.mysql_secret这个文件,所以没有没法按照官方文档上说的那样使用,这里记录下,

解决方式:

首先修改MySQL授权登录方式---(跳过授权验证方式启动MySQL):
[root@test ~]# mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables & [1] 3401 [root@test ~]# 2016-05-19T12:47:56.564385Z mysqld_safe Logging to '/var/log/mysqld.log'. 2016-05-19T12:47:56.589376Z mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /var/lib/mysql
检查MySQL启动情况 [root@test
~]# ps -ef | grep mysql root 3401 2880 0 20:47 pts/1 00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables mysql 3548 3401 0 20:47 pts/1 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib64/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --skip-grant-tables --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
这时登录MySQL不再需要验证
[root@test ~]# mysql

成功登录MySQL后:

切换到mysql系统库:
mysql> use mysql;

修改root账户登录密码:
mysql> update user set password=password('') where user='root';
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column 'password' in 'field list'
---报错没有password这个数据字段列

描述user表
mysql> desc user;
...
| authentication_string  | text                              | YES  |     | NULL                  |       |
| password_expired       | enum('N','Y')                     | NO   |     | N                     |       |
| password_last_changed  | timestamp                         | YES  |     | NULL                  |       |
| password_lifetime      | smallint(5) unsigned              | YES  |     | NULL                  |       |
| account_locked         | enum('N','Y')                     | NO   |     | N                     |       |
+------------------------+-----------------------------------+------+-----+-----------------------+-------+
---没发现password列,但是找到这5个跟密码相关的数据字段

查询一下相关的密码信息:
mysql> select user,host,authentication_string,password_expired from user;
+-----------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+------------------+
| user      | host      | authentication_string                     | password_expired |
+-----------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+------------------+
| root      | localhost | *9AA01F6E2A80A823ACB72CC07337E2911404B5B8 | Y                |
| mysql.sys | localhost | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | N                |
+-----------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+------------------+
---到这里不难发现root账户的密码已过期,还比5.6多出了一个mysql.sys用户

修改密码
mysql> update user set authentication_string=password('123abc') where user='root';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit

密码修改成功,测试:

重启MySQL:
[root@test ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld restart

登录测试:
[root@test ~]# mysql -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 3
Server version: 5.7.12-enterprise-commercial-advanced
...
mysql> show databases;
ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.
---报错,需要使用alter user 修改密码
mysql
> alter user root@'localhost' identified by 'Oracle'; ERROR 1819 (HY000): Your password does not satisfy the current policy requirements ---报错,密码不满足制定的密码负责度要求
mysql
> alter user 'root'@'localhost' identified by 'Abc!123D'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) mysql> show databases; +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | information_schema | | mysql | | performance_schema | | sys | +--------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 关于密码策略

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| Variable_name                        | Value  |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| validate_password_dictionary_file    |        |
| validate_password_length             | 8      |
| validate_password_mixed_case_count   | 1      |
| validate_password_number_count       | 1      |
| validate_password_policy             | MEDIUM |
| validate_password_special_char_count | 1      |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
6 rows in set (0.02 sec) 

mysql> show plugins;
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+-------------+
| Name                       | Status   | Type               | Library              | License     |
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+-------------+
| binlog                     | ACTIVE   | STORAGE ENGINE     | NULL                 | PROPRIETARY |

...
| validate_password          | ACTIVE   | VALIDATE PASSWORD  | validate_password.so | PROPRIETARY |
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+-------------+
---可以通过在配置文件[mysqld]标签中添加 validate_passwor=off ,来关闭密码策略
如下:
...
| validate_password          | DISABLED | VALIDATE PASSWORD  | validate_password.so | PROPRIETARY |
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+-------------

总结

1) 安装好mysql后,第一次启动时,root管理密码会在/root/.mysql_secret中随机生成

2) 至5.7后,MySQL的 mysql.user 表中的密码字段由之前的 password 改为 authentication_string

3) 使用--skip-grant-tables 参数启动,跳过MySQL的授权验证,--skip-networking参数,跳过远程登录

4) 修改MySQL密码方式:

法1:update user set authentication_string=password('123abc') where user='root';

法2:set password=password('newpassword');

法3:alter user root@'localhost' identified by 'oracle';

法4:在shell下使用MySQL工具:mysqladmin -uroot -poldpassword pasword "newpassword"

5) 关于MySQL密码策略:

决定是否使用该插件(及强制/永久强制使用)
--validate-password=ON/OFF/FORCE/FORCE_PLUS_PERMANENT
 
validate_password_dictionary_file           > 插件用于验证密码强度的字典文件路径。
validate_password_length                        > 密码最小长度。
validate_password_mixed_case_count     > 密码至少要包含的小写字母个数和大写字母个数。
validate_password_number_count    > 密码至少要包含的数字个数。
validate_password_policy                         > 密码强度检查等级,0/LOW、1/MEDIUM、2/STRONG
validate_password_special_char_count    > 密码至少要包含的特殊字符数。
 
其中关于validate_password_policy-密码强度检查等级:
0/LOW    > 只检查长度
1/MEDIUM      > 检查长度、数字、大小写、特殊字符
2/STRONG      > 检查长度、数字、大小写、特殊字符字典文件

后记

经过一段时间后,发现mysql初始密码原来被记录到了日志文件中

查找日志位置
[root@test /var/lib/mysql]# ps -ef | grep mysql root 5604 1 0 22:40 pts/1 00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --basedir=/usr --user=mysql mysql 5802 5604 5 22:40 pts/1 00:00:00 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib64/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock root 5837 2880 0 22:40 pts/1 00:00:00 grep --color mysql
藏在日志文件中的临时密码 [root@test
/var/lib/mysql]# grep "A temporary password" /var/log/mysqld.log 2016-05-17T16:46:53.059632Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: +wGVA#to(4tu

本文永久更新链接地址http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-05/143692.htm

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