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给Linux系统/网络管理员的nmap的29个实用例子

[日期:2014-02-12] 来源:Linux中国  作者:Linux [字体: ]

Nmap亦称为Network Mapper(网络映射)是一个开源并且通用的用于Linux系统/网络管理员的工具。nmap用于探查网络、执行安全扫描、网络核查并且在远程机器上找出开放端口。它可以扫描在线的主机、操作系统、包过滤器和远程主机上的开放端口。

Nmap 命令和示例

我会分两个章节讲述NMAP的常见的使用方法,这篇是nmap系列的第一部分(译注:原文为I’ll be covering most of NMAP usage in two different parts and this is the first part of nmap serious,这里serious可能为笔误,应该为series)。在这个步骤里,我用两个没有防火墙的服务器来测试nmap命令的工作。

  • 192.168.0.100 – server1.tecmint.com
  • 192.168.0.101 – server2.tecmint.com

Nmap 命令使用

# nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}

如何在Linux上安装nmap

如今大部分Linux发行版像Red Hat, CentOS, Fedoro, DebianUbuntu已经在它们默认的包管理仓库中包含了nmap,可以通过Yum 和 APT安装、管理和更新软件包。在这些发行版上安装nmap,可以使用下面的命令。

# yum install nmap      [基于 Red Hat 的发行版]
$ sudo apt-get install nmap [基于 Debian 的发行版]

安装了最新的nmap程序之后,你就可以跟着这篇文章中的示例指令来学习了。

1. 带主机名和IP地址扫描系统

nmap工具提供了不同的方法来扫描一个系统。在这个例子中,我使用主机名为server2.tecmint.com的机器执行扫描来找出所有开放端口,服务和系统上的MAC地址。

使用主机名扫描

[root@server1 ~]# nmap server2.tecmint.com

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 15:42 EST
Interesting ports on server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101):
Not shown: 1674 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
957/tcp  open  unknown
3306/tcp open  MySQL
8888/tcp open  sun-answerbook
MAC Address: 08:00:27:D9:8E:D7 (Cadmus Computer Systems)

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.415 seconds
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root

使用IP地址扫描

[root@server1 ~]# nmap 192.168.0.101

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-18 11:04 EST
Interesting ports on server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101):
Not shown: 1674 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
958/tcp  open  unknown
3306/tcp open  mysql
8888/tcp open  sun-answerbook
MAC Address: 08:00:27:D9:8E:D7 (Cadmus Computer Systems)

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.465 seconds
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root

2. 使用"-v"选项扫描

你可以看到带"-v"选项的命令给出了关于远程机器的更多信息。

[root@server1 ~]# nmap -v server2.tecmint.com

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 15:43 EST
Initiating ARP Ping Scan against 192.168.0.101 [1 port] at 15:43
The ARP Ping Scan took 0.01s to scan 1 total hosts.
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan against server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101) [1680 ports] at 15:43
Discovered open port 22/tcp on 192.168.0.101
Discovered open port 80/tcp on 192.168.0.101
Discovered open port 8888/tcp on 192.168.0.101
Discovered open port 111/tcp on 192.168.0.101
Discovered open port 3306/tcp on 192.168.0.101
Discovered open port 957/tcp on 192.168.0.101
The SYN Stealth Scan took 0.30s to scan 1680 total ports.
Host server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101) appears to be up ... good.
Interesting ports on server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101):
Not shown: 1674 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
957/tcp  open  unknown
3306/tcp open  mysql
8888/tcp open  sun-answerbook
MAC Address: 08:00:27:D9:8E:D7 (Cadmus Computer Systems)

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 0.485 seconds
               Raw packets sent: 1681 (73.962KB) | Rcvd: 1681 (77.322KB)

扫描多台主机

你可以简单地通过在namap后写上它们的IP地址或者主机名来扫描多台主机。

[root@server1 ~]# nmap 192.168.0.101 192.168.0.102 192.168.0.103

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 16:06 EST
Interesting ports on server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101):
Not shown: 1674 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
957/tcp  open  unknown
3306/tcp open  mysql
8888/tcp open  sun-answerbook
MAC Address: 08:00:27:D9:8E:D7 (Cadmus Computer Systems)
Nmap finished: 3 IP addresses (1 host up) scanned in 0.580 seconds

4. 扫描整个子网

你可以通过通配符来使nmap扫描整个子网或者IP段。

[root@server1 ~]# nmap 192.168.0.*

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 16:11 EST
Interesting ports on server1.tecmint.com (192.168.0.100):
Not shown: 1677 closed ports
PORT    STATE SERVICE
22/tcp  open  ssh
111/tcp open  rpcbind
851/tcp open  unknown

Interesting ports on server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101):
Not shown: 1674 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
957/tcp  open  unknown
3306/tcp open  mysql
8888/tcp open  sun-answerbook
MAC Address: 08:00:27:D9:8E:D7 (Cadmus Computer Systems)

Nmap finished: 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 5.550 seconds
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root

从上面的输出你可以看到nmap扫描了整个子网,并给出了网络在线主机的信息。

5. 使用IP地址的最后一段扫描多台主机

你可以简单地通过指定IP地址的最后8位执行扫描多台主机。比如说,这里我在IP地址为192.168.0.101, 192.168.0.102 and 192.168.0.103的机器上执行了扫描。

[root@server1 ~]# nmap 192.168.0.101,102,103

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2013-11-11 16:09 EST
Interesting ports on server2.tecmint.com (192.168.0.101):
Not shown: 1674 closed ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE
22/tcp   open  ssh
80/tcp   open  http
111/tcp  open  rpcbind
957/tcp  open  unknown
3306/tcp open  mysql
8888/tcp open  sun-answerbook
MAC Address: 08:00:27:D9:8E:D7 (Cadmus Computer Systems)

Nmap finished: 3 IP addresses (1 host up) scanned in 0.552 seconds
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root

相关阅读:

Linux下的端口扫描工具nmap http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-12/75752.htm

nmap详解--网络扫描和嗅探工具包 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-08/67593.htm

nmap应用技巧 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-08/68602.htm

RedHat Enterprise Linux 5 下nmap的一次曲折安装 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2011-01/31085.htm

Linux中让nmap命令跟防火墙捉迷藏 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2009-09/21924.htm

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