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SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

[日期:2015-06-06] 来源:Linux社区  作者:sunniest [字体: ]

SpringMVC学习笔记---- 

Spring MVC+Spring3+Hibernate4开发环境搭建 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-07/87119.htm 

Spring MVC整合Freemarker基于注解方式 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2013-02/79660.htm 

基于注解的Spring MVC简单介绍 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-02/54896.htm 

Spring MVC 框架搭建及详解 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2012-01/52740.htm 

一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置
 
  <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
  <servlet>
      <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
      <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
      <init-param>
            <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
            <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
  </servlet>

  <servlet-mapping>
      <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
      <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>
 

3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

 
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
    xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    

    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>

    <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />

    <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />
    
    <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
    <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
            id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前缀 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
        <!-- 后缀 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>
 

4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用来存放jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

6.编写Controller代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/mvc")
public class mvcController {

    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){        
        return "hello";
    }
}
 

7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

二、配置解析

1.Dispatcherservlet

  DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller来处理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

2.InternalResourceViewResolver

  视图名称解析器

3.以上出现的注解

@Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

@RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

三、SpringMVC常用注解

@Controller

  负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中
@RequestMapping

  注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求
@RequestBody

  该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

@ResponseBody

   该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

@ModelAttribute    

  在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

  在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

@RequestParam 

  在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

@PathVariable

  绑定 URL 占位符到入参
@ExceptionHandler

  注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法
@ControllerAdvice

  使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

四、自动匹配参数

 
    //match automatically
    @RequestMapping("/person")
    public String toPerson(String name,double age){
        System.out.println(name+" "+age);
        return "hello";
    }
 

五、自动装箱

1.编写一个Person实体类

 
package test.SpringMVC.model;

public class Person {
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
    private String name;
    private int age;
    
}
 

2.在Controller里编写方法

 
    //boxing automatically
    @RequestMapping("/person1")
    public String toPerson(Person p){
        System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
        return "hello";
    }
 

六、使用InitBinder来处理Date类型的参数

 
    //the parameter was converted in initBinder
    @RequestMapping("/date")
    public String date(Date date){
        System.out.println(date);
        return "hello";
    }
    
    //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
    @InitBinder
    public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
        binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
                true));
    }
 

七、向前台传递参数

 
    //pass the parameters to front-end
    @RequestMapping("/show")
    public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
        Person p =new Person();
        map.put("p", p);
        p.setAge(20);
        p.setName("jayjay");
        return "show";
    }
 

前台可在Request域中取到"p"

八、使用Ajax调用

 
    //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
    @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
    public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
        pw.write("hello,"+name);        
    }
    @RequestMapping("/name")
    public String sayHello(){
        return "name";
    }
 

前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

 
          $(function(){
              $("#btn").click(function(){
                  $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
                      alert(data);
                  });
              });
          });
 

九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

    //redirect 
    @RequestMapping("/redirect")
    public String redirect(){
        return "redirect:hello";
    }

十、文件上传

1.需要导入两个jar包

2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

    <!-- upload settings -->
    <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
        <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
    </bean>

3.方法代码

 
    @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
        MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
        MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
        String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
        SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
        FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
        fos.write(file.getBytes());
        fos.flush();
        fos.close();
        
        return "hello";
    }
 

4.前台form表单

      <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
          <input type="file" name="file"><br>
          <input type="submit" value="submit">
      </form>

十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

 
@Controller
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class mvcController1 {
    @RequestMapping(value="/param")
    public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
            @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
        System.out.println(id+" "+name);
        return "/hello";
    }    
}
 

十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

1.RestController

 
@Controller
@RequestMapping("/rest")
public class RestController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("get"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("post"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("put"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("delete"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
}
 

2.form表单发送put和delete请求

在web.xml中配置

 
  <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
  <filter>
      <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>
 

在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

 
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
        <input type="submit" value="put">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="submit" value="post">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
        <input type="submit" value="get">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
        <input type="submit" value="delete">
    </form>
 

十三、返回json格式的字符串

1.导入以下jar包

2.方法代码

 
@Controller
@RequestMapping("/json")
public class jsonController {
    
    @ResponseBody
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public  User get(){
        User u = new User();
        u.setId(1);
        u.setName("jayjay");
        u.setBirth(new Date());
        return u;
    }
}
 

十四、异常的处理

1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

 
    @ExceptionHandler
    public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
        mv.addObject("exception", ex);
        System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
        return mv;
    }
    
    @RequestMapping("/error")
    public String error(){
        int i = 5/0;
        return "hello";
    }
 

2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

 
@ControllerAdvice
public class testControllerAdvice {
    @ExceptionHandler
    public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
        mv.addObject("exception", ex);
        System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
        return mv;
    }
}
 

3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

 
    <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
    <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
        <property name="exceptionMappings">
            <props>
                <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
            </props>
        </property>
    </bean>
 

error是出错页面

十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

 
public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {

    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
            HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
            throws Exception {
        System.out.println("afterCompletion");
    }

    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("postHandle");
    }

    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("preHandle");
        return true;
    }

}
 

2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

 
    <!-- interceptor setting -->
    <mvc:interceptors>
        <mvc:interceptor>
            <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
            <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
        </mvc:interceptor>        
    </mvc:interceptors>
 

3.拦截器执行顺序

 

更多详情见请继续阅读下一页的精彩内容http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2015-06/118461p2.htm

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