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迁移Linux Mint 18.2 apt命令到Ubuntu Server 16.04 LTS

[日期:2018-02-13] 来源:Linux社区  作者:qwfys200 [字体: ]

1、问题描述

这里有两台主机,其中

192.168.1.4上安装的是Linux Mint 18.2 Sonya系统。主机名是linuxidccom,用户名是linuxidc。

192.168.1.25上安装的是Ubuntu Server 16.04.3 LT系统。主机名是ubuntu,用户名是linuxidc。

当在192.168.1.25上输入命令apt的时候这样的:

linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: enp0s3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 08:00:27:5e:65:ca brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.25/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global enp0s3
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::a00:27ff:fe5e:65ca/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS
Release:    16.04
Codename:   xenial
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ apt
apt 1.2.24 (amd64)
Usage: apt [options] command

apt is a commandline package manager and provides commands for
searching and managing as well as querying information about packages.
It provides the same functionality as the specialized APT tools,
like apt-get and apt-cache, but enables options more suitable for
interactive use by default.

Most used commands:
  list - list packages based on package names
  search - search in package descriptions
  show - show package details
  install - install packages
  remove - remove packages
  autoremove - Remove automatically all unused packages
  update - update list of available packages
  upgrade - upgrade the system by installing/upgrading packages
  full-upgrade - upgrade the system by removing/installing/upgrading packages
  edit-sources - edit the source information file

See apt(8) for more information about the available commands.
Configuration options and syntax is detailed in apt.conf(5).
Information about how to configure sources can be found in sources.list(5).
Package and version choices can be expressed via apt_preferences(5).
Security details are available in apt-secure(8).
                                        This APT has Super Cow Powers.
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ 

当在192.168.1.4上输入命令apt的时候却是这样的:

linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: wlp2s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 9c:b6:d0:dd:fc:f7 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.4/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global dynamic wlp2s0
       valid_lft 246699sec preferred_lft 246699sec
    inet6 fe80::a0fd:f518:e91a:dde0/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: LinuxMint
Description:    Linux Mint 18.2 Sonya
Release:    18.2
Codename:   sonya
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ apt
apt
Usage: apt command [options]
       apt help command [options]

Commands:
  add-repository   - Add entries to apt sources.list
  autoclean        - Erase old downloaded archive files
  autoremove       - Remove automatically all unused packages
  build            - Build binary or source packages from sources
  build-dep        - Configure build-dependencies for source packages
  changelog        - View a package's changelog
  check            - Verify that there are no broken dependencies
  clean            - Erase downloaded archive files
  contains         - List packages containing a file
  content          - List files contained in a package
  deb              - Install a .deb package
  depends          - Show raw dependency information for a package
  dist-upgrade     - Upgrade the system by removing/installing/upgrading packages
  download         - Download the .deb file for a package
  edit-sources     - Edit /etc/apt/sources.list with your preferred text editor
  dselect-upgrade  - Follow dselect selections
  full-upgrade     - Same as 'dist-upgrade'
  held             - List all held packages
  help             - Show help for a command
  hold             - Hold a package
  install          - Install/upgrade packages
  list             - List packages based on package names
  policy           - Show policy settings
  purge            - Remove packages and their configuration files
  recommends       - List missing recommended packages for a particular package
  rdepends         - Show reverse dependency information for a package
  reinstall        - Download and (possibly) reinstall a currently installed package
  remove           - Remove packages
  search           - Search for a package by name and/or expression
  show             - Display detailed information about a package
  showhold         - Same as 'held'
  source           - Download source archives
  sources          - Same as 'edit-sources'
  unhold           - Unhold a package
  update           - Download lists of new/upgradable packages
  upgrade          - Perform a safe upgrade
  version          - Show the installed version of a package

linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ apt help install
"apt install " is equivalent to "sudo /usr/bin/apt install "
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ apt help add-repository
"apt add-repository " is equivalent to "sudo add-apt-repository "
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ apt help purge
"apt purge " is equivalent to "sudo /usr/bin/apt purge "
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ 

有没有一种办法让Ubuntu Server 16.04.3 LT系统也拥有Linux Mint 18.2 Sonya那样的apt功能呢?

2、解决方案

让我我们先查找一下apt命令的出处吧。

在主机192.168.1.4上我们输入如下命令

linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ whereis apt
apt: /usr/bin/apt /usr/lib/apt /etc/apt /usr/local/bin/apt /usr/share/man/man8/apt.8.gz
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ 

在主机192.168.1.4上我们输入如下命令

linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ whereis apt
apt: /usr/bin/apt /usr/lib/apt /etc/apt /usr/share/man/man8/apt.8.gz
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ 

通过对比,我们发现Linux Mint 18.2 Sonya系统中的目录/usr/local/bin/下面多了一个apt文件。那么我们假定将Linux Mint 18.2 Sonya系统中的文件/usr/local/bin/apt复制一份放到Ubuntu Server 16.04.3 LT系统中的目录/usr/local/bin/下,会不会有效果呢,我们不防试一下。

在主机192.168.1.25上我们输入如下命令

linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ ll
total 36
drwxr-xr-x 4 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 23 00:06 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Nov 10 11:20 ../
-rw------- 1 linuxidc  lwk  3479 Nov 23 00:03 .bash_history
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk   220 Nov 10 11:20 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk  3771 Nov 10 11:20 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 10 11:30 .cache/
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk   655 Nov 10 11:20 .profile
drwx------ 2 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 10 11:42 .ssh/
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk     0 Nov 10 11:38 .sudo_as_admin_successful
-rw------- 1 root root 3433 Nov 23 00:00 .viminfo
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ 

确认主机192.168.1.25用户linuxidc主目录下没有apt文件。

这时,在主机192.168.1.4上我们输入如下命令

linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ scp /usr/local/bin/apt linuxidc@192.168.1.25:~/
apt                                                                                                                                                                                                         100% 6329     6.2KB/s   00:00    
linuxidc@linuxidccom ~ $ 

切换到主机192.168.1.25上输入如下命令

linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ ll
total 44
drwxr-xr-x 4 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 23 00:48 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Nov 10 11:20 ../
-rwxr-xr-x 1 linuxidc  lwk  6329 Nov 23 00:48 apt*
-rw------- 1 linuxidc  lwk  3479 Nov 23 00:03 .bash_history
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk   220 Nov 10 11:20 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk  3771 Nov 10 11:20 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 10 11:30 .cache/
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk   655 Nov 10 11:20 .profile
drwx------ 2 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 10 11:42 .ssh/
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk     0 Nov 10 11:38 .sudo_as_admin_successful
-rw------- 1 root root 3433 Nov 23 00:00 .viminfo
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ 

这时候我们发现apt文件的归属不对,这里改一下,然后将其扔到/usr/local/bin/,然后查看有没有生效。

linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ sudo chown root:root apt
[sudo] password for linuxidc: 
lwk@ubuntu:~$ ll
total 44
drwxr-xr-x 4 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 23 00:48 ./
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Nov 10 11:20 ../
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 6329 Nov 23 00:48 apt*
-rw------- 1 linuxidc  lwk  3479 Nov 23 00:03 .bash_history
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk   220 Nov 10 11:20 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk  3771 Nov 10 11:20 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 10 11:30 .cache/
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk   655 Nov 10 11:20 .profile
drwx------ 2 linuxidc  lwk  4096 Nov 10 11:42 .ssh/
-rw-r--r-- 1 linuxidc  lwk     0 Nov 10 11:38 .sudo_as_admin_successful
-rw------- 1 root root 3433 Nov 23 00:00 .viminfo
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ sudo mv apt /usr/local/bin/ 
linuxidc@ubuntu:~$ apt
apt
Usage: apt command [options]
       apt help command [options]

Commands:
  add-repository   - Add entries to apt sources.list
  autoclean        - Erase old downloaded archive files
  autoremove       - Remove automatically all unused packages
  build            - Build binary or source packages from sources
  build-dep        - Configure build-dependencies for source packages
  changelog        - View a package's changelog
  check            - Verify that there are no broken dependencies
  clean            - Erase downloaded archive files
  contains         - List packages containing a file
  content          - List files contained in a package
  deb              - Install a .deb package
  depends          - Show raw dependency information for a package
  dist-upgrade     - Upgrade the system by removing/installing/upgrading packages
  download         - Download the .deb file for a package
  edit-sources     - Edit /etc/apt/sources.list with your preferred text editor
  dselect-upgrade  - Follow dselect selections
  full-upgrade     - Same as 'dist-upgrade'
  held             - List all held packages
  help             - Show help for a command
  hold             - Hold a package
  install          - Install/upgrade packages
  list             - List packages based on package names
  policy           - Show policy settings
  purge            - Remove packages and their configuration files
  recommends       - List missing recommended packages for a particular package
  rdepends         - Show reverse dependency information for a package
  reinstall        - Download and (possibly) reinstall a currently installed package
  remove           - Remove packages
  search           - Search for a package by name and/or expression
  show             - Display detailed information about a package
  showhold         - Same as 'held'
  source           - Download source archives
  sources          - Same as 'edit-sources'
  unhold           - Unhold a package
  update           - Download lists of new/upgradable packages
  upgrade          - Perform a safe upgrade
  version          - Show the installed version of a package

linuxidc@ubuntu:~$  

至此,我们发现已经将Linux Mint 18.2 Sonya系统中的apt命令成功迁移到了Ubuntu Server 16.04.3 LT系统。

本文永久更新链接地址http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-02/150921.htm

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