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RedHat Linux 6 下 MySQL 8.0.11安装配置

[日期:2018-05-16] 来源:Linux社区  作者:leohahah [字体: ]

我这里是RHEL6.5的系统,因此选择RedHat 6 x86,64bit操作系统---下载第一个RPM Bundle即可--mysql-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar。

目前MySQL8.0.11社区版提供了多种多样的安装方式,但是并未发现针对Linux Generic安装包包含的mysql_secure_installation的安装说明。

MySQL官网地址:https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/

因此这里使用推荐的RPM安装:

一、mysql-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm-bundle.tar解压后有如下7个文件:

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  28987588 Apr  9 01:06 mysql-community-client-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root    672184 Apr  9 01:06 mysql-community-common-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  4443296 Apr  9 01:06 mysql-community-devel-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  2579460 Apr  9 01:06 mysql-community-libs-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  1902676 Apr  9 01:06 mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 395918848 Apr  9 01:07 mysql-community-server-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  49092596 Apr  9 01:07 mysql-community-test-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm

然后创建mysql用户:

useradd mysql
passwd mysql

二、安装顺序为:(建议装之前先把之前的mysql相关包全部卸载,rpm -e --nodeps <包名>即可)

[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-common-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-common-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
  1:mysql-community-common ########################################### [100%]
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-libs-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-libs-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
  1:mysql-community-libs  ########################################### [100%]
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
    file /usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient.so.16.0.0 from install of mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64 conflicts with file from package mysql-libs-5.1.73-8.0.1.el6_8.x86_64
    file /usr/lib64/mysql/libmysqlclient_r.so.16.0.0 from install of mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64 conflicts with file from package mysql-libs-5.1.73-8.0.1.el6_8.x86_64
[root@python ~]# rpm -e --nodeps mysql-libs-5.1.73-8.0.1.el6_8.x86_64
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-libs-compat-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
  1:mysql-community-libs-co########################################### [100%]
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-server-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-server-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
error: Failed dependencies:
    mysql-community-client(x86-64) >= 8.0.0 is needed by mysql-community-server-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-client-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-client-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
  1:mysql-community-client ########################################### [100%]
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-server-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-server-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
  1:mysql-community-server ########################################### [100%]
[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-devel-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-devel-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
  1:mysql-community-devel  ########################################### [100%]
^[[A[root@python ~]# rpm -ivh mysql-community-test-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
warning: mysql-community-test-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
error: Failed dependencies:
    perl(JSON) is needed by mysql-community-test-8.0.11-1.el6.x86_64
--懒的去装perl了,因此测试套件就不装了。

三、安装完毕后相关信息如下:

[root@python ~]# mysql -V
mysql  Ver 8.0.11 for Linux on x86_64 (MySQL Community Server - GPL)
[root@python ~]# ll /etc/init.d/mysqld
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7166 Apr  8 16:21 /etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@python ~]# ll /etc/my.cnf --配置文件位置
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1188 Apr  8 16:21 /etc/my.cnf

默认的datadir是在/var/lib/mysql/,可以通过修改my.cnf修改,启动命令如下:

[root@python ~]# service mysqld start
Initializing MySQL database:                              [  OK  ]
Starting mysqld:                                          [  OK  ]

四、发现没密码不能登录,于是添加skip-grant-tables到my.cnf,重启进去重置密码

mysql> alter user root@'localhost' identified by 'mysql';
ERROR 1290 (HY000): The MySQL server is running with the --skip-grant-tables option so it cannot execute this statement
mysql> exit
Bye

居然不能改。。。于是:

mysql> delete from mysql.user where user='root';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.10 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> create user root@'localhost' identified by 'mysql';
ERROR 1819 (HY000): Your password does not satisfy the current policy requirements

还是不能改,查看密码复杂度要求:

mysql> show variables like '%pass%';
+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
| Variable_name                                | Value          |
+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
| caching_sha2_password_auto_generate_rsa_keys | ON              |
| caching_sha2_password_private_key_path      | private_key.pem |
| caching_sha2_password_public_key_path        | public_key.pem  |
| default_password_lifetime                    | 0              |
| disconnect_on_expired_password              | ON              |
| mysql_native_password_proxy_users            | OFF            |
| password_history                            | 0              |
| password_reuse_interval                      | 0              |
| report_password                              |                |
| sha256_password_auto_generate_rsa_keys      | ON              |
| sha256_password_private_key_path            | private_key.pem |
| sha256_password_proxy_users                  | OFF            |
| sha256_password_public_key_path              | public_key.pem  |
| validate_password.check_user_name            | ON              |
| validate_password.dictionary_file            |                |
| validate_password.length                    | 8              |
| validate_password.mixed_case_count          | 1              |
| validate_password.number_count              | 1              |
| validate_password.policy                    | MEDIUM          |
| validate_password.special_char_count        | 1              |
+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+

查看官网https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/validate-password-options-variables.html#sysvar_validate_password.policy

发现此值有3个,如下所示:

于是设置为0,然后将validate_password.length设置为4,表示最少需要4字符。之所以设置为4是因为这个参数的值不能小于如下公式的计算结果:

validate_password.number_count
+ validate_password.special_char_count
+ (2 * validate_password.mixed_case_count)

于是继续创建用户,MySQL8.0取消了直接grant创建用户的语法,只能先create user再grant,因此创建root如下:

mysql> create user root@'localhost' identified by 'mysql';
ERROR 1396 (HY000): Operation CREATE USER failed for 'root'@'localhost'
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> create user root@'localhost' identified by 'mysql';
ERROR 1396 (HY000): Operation CREATE USER failed for 'root'@'localhost'

尼玛...什么玩意儿?
于是去逛了一圈stackoverflow,都说这是一个BUG,于是操作如下:

mysql> drop user root@'localhost';  --是的没错,虽然没有root@'localhost'用户,但你还是要删一遍。
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> create user root@'localhost' identified by 'mysql';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)
mysql> grant all on *.* to root@'localhost' with grant option;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

终于改完密码了...去掉参数文件的skip-grant-tables参数,service mysqld restart重启服务。

五、终于设置好密码了,建一个测试用户leo,然后尝试远程连接下吧:

$ mysql -uleo -pmysql -h192.168.1.193
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 2059 (HY000): Authentication plugin 'caching_sha2_password' cannot be loaded: /usr/lib/mysql/plugin/caching_sha2_password.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

我这5.7的mysql工具都连不上,这就尴尬了,查看认证相关参数:

mysql> show variables like '%auth%';
+-------------------------------+-----------------------+
| Variable_name                | Value                |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------+
| default_authentication_plugin | caching_sha2_password |
+-------------------------------+-----------------------+
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

查看官网发现此值的取值如下:

官网还说此值影响create user不显式指定auth plugin时密码的默认加密算法,卧槽...那岂不是说我之前创建的leo用户使用的是默认的caching_sha2_password认证,查看一下:

mysql> select user,host,plugin from mysql.user;
+------------------+-----------+-----------------------+
| user            | host      | plugin                |
+------------------+-----------+-----------------------+
| leo              | %        | caching_sha2_password |
| mysql.infoschema | localhost | mysql_native_password |
| mysql.session    | localhost | mysql_native_password |
| mysql.sys        | localhost | mysql_native_password |
| root            | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
+------------------+-----------+-----------------------+

完了,全TM完了......

显然不能直接update plugin,因为这可能导致加密的密码无法被正确解密,你所有的密码都会变异,因此除root@'localhost'外全部删掉重建。

首先需要在my.cnf里添加:default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password,然后service mysqld restart重启服务:

mysql> drop user leo;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> create user leo identified by 'mysql';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)
mysql> grant all on *.* to leo;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.08 sec)

$mysql -V
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.20, for Linux (x86_64) using  EditLine wrapper
$ mysql -uleo -pmysql -h192.168.1.193
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 16
Server version: 8.0.11 MySQL Community Server - GPL
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql>

至此远程连接正常。

本文永久更新链接地址https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-05/152409.htm

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