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CentOS搭建HA高可用Hadoop 2.7.6 集群

[日期:2018-08-05] 来源:Linux社区  作者:zhanglianghhh [字体: ]

1. Hadoop的HA机制

  前言:正式引入HA机制是从hadoop2.0开始,之前的版本中没有HA机制

1.1. HA的运作机制

(1)hadoop-HA集群运作机制介绍

  所谓HA,即高可用(7*24小时不中断服务)

  实现高可用最关键的是消除单点故障

  hadoop-ha严格来说应该分成各个组件的HA机制——HDFS的HA、YARN的HA

(2)HDFS的HA机制详解

  通过双namenode消除单点故障

  双namenode协调工作的要点:

     A、元数据管理方式需要改变:

        内存中各自保存一份元数据

        Edits日志只能有一份,只有Active状态的namenode节点可以做写操作

        两个namenode都可以读取edits

        共享的edits放在一个共享存储中管理(qjournal和NFS两个主流实现)

      B、需要一个状态管理功能模块

        实现了一个zkfailover,常驻在每一个namenode所在的节点

        每一个zkfailover负责监控自己所在namenode节点,利用zk进行状态标识

        当需要进行状态切换时,由zkfailover来负责切换

        切换时需要防止brain split现象的发生

1.2. HDFS-HA图解

 

2. 主机规划

主机名称

外网IP

内网IP

操作系统

备注

安装软件

运行进程

mini01

10.0.0.111

172.16.1.111

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop

NameNode、DFSZKFailoverController(zkfc)

mini02

10.0.0.112

172.16.1.112

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop

NameNode、DFSZKFailoverController(zkfc)

mini03

10.0.0.113

172.16.1.113

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop、zookeeper

ResourceManager

mini04

10.0.0.114

172.16.1.114

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop、zookeeper

ResourceManager

mini05

10.0.0.115

172.16.1.115

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop、zookeeper

DataNode、NodeManager、JournalNode、QuorumPeerMain

mini06

10.0.0.116

172.16.1.116

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop、zookeeper

DataNode、NodeManager、JournalNode、QuorumPeerMain

mini07

10.0.0.117

172.16.1.117

CentOS 7.4

ssh port:22

jdk、hadoop、zookeeper

DataNode、NodeManager、JournalNode、QuorumPeerMain

注意:针对HA模式,就不需要SecondaryNameNode了,因为STANDBY状态的namenode会负责做checkpoint

Linux添加hosts信息,保证每台都可以相互ping通 

[root@mini01 ~]# cat /etc/hosts 
127.0.0.1  localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1        localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

10.0.0.111    mini01
10.0.0.112    mini02
10.0.0.113    mini03
10.0.0.114    mini04
10.0.0.115    mini05
10.0.0.116    mini06
10.0.0.117    mini07

Windows的hosts文件修改

 # 文件位置C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc  在hosts中追加如下内容
…………………………………………
10.0.0.111    mini01
10.0.0.112    mini02
10.0.0.113    mini03
10.0.0.114    mini04
10.0.0.115    mini05
10.0.0.116    mini06
10.0.0.117    mini07

3. 添加用户账号

 # 使用一个专门的用户,避免直接使用root用户
# 添加用户、指定家目录并指定用户密码
useradd -d /app yun && echo '123456' | /usr/bin/passwd --stdin yun
# sudo提权
echo "yun  ALL=(ALL)      NOPASSWD: ALL" >>  /etc/sudoers
# 让其它普通用户可以进入该目录查看信息
chmod 755 /app/

4. 实现yun用户免秘钥登录

要求:根据规划实现 mini01 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录
              实现 mini02 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录
              实现 mini03 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录
              实现 mini04 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录
              实现 mini05 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录
              实现 mini06 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录
              实现 mini07 到 mini01、mini02、mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 免秘钥登录

# 可以使用ip也可以是hostname  但是由于我们计划使用的是 hostname 方式交互,所以使用hostname
# 同时hostname方式分发,可以通过hostname远程登录,也可以IP远程登录

具体过程就不多说了,请参见  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-08/153353.htm

5. Jdk【java8】

具体过程就不多说了,请参见 https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-08/153353.htm

6. Zookeeper部署

根据规划zookeeper部署在mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07上

6.1. 配置信息

[yun@mini03 conf]$ pwd
/app/zookeeper/conf
[yun@mini03 conf]$ vim zoo.cfg
#单个客户端与单台服务器之间的连接数的限制,是ip级别的,默认是60,如果设置为0,那么表明不作任何限制。
maxClientCnxns=1500
# The number of milliseconds of each tick
tickTime=2000
# The number of ticks that the initial
# synchronization phase can take
initLimit=10
# The number of ticks that can pass between
# sending a request and getting an acknowledgement
syncLimit=5
# the directory where the snapshot is stored.
# do not use /tmp for storage, /tmp here is just
# example sakes.
# dataDir=/tmp/zookeeper
dataDir=/app/bigdata/zookeeper/data
# the port at which the clients will connect
clientPort=2181
#
# Be sure to read the maintenance section of the
# administrator guide before turning on autopurge.
#
# http://zookeeper.apache.org/doc/current/zookeeperAdmin.html#sc_maintenance
#
# The number of snapshots to retain in dataDir
#autopurge.snapRetainCount=3
# Purge task interval in hours
# Set to "0" to disable auto purge feature
#autopurge.purgeInterval=1

# leader和follow通信端口和投票选举端口 
server.3=mini03:2888:3888
server.4=mini04:2888:3888
server.5=mini05:2888:3888
server.6=mini06:2888:3888
server.7=mini07:2888:3888

6.2. 添加myid文件

[yun@mini03 data]$ pwd
/app/bigdata/zookeeper/data
[yun@mini03 data]$ vim myid  # 其中mini03的myid 为3;mini04的myid 为4;mini05的myid 为5;mini06的myid 为6;mini07的myid 为7 
3

6.3. 启动zk服务

# 依次在启动mini03、mini04、mini05、mini06、mini07 zk服务
[yun@mini03 ~]$ cd zookeeper/bin/
[yun@mini03 bin]$ pwd
/app/zookeeper/bin
[yun@mini03 bin]$ ll
total 56
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  238 Oct  1  2012 README.txt
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  1909 Oct  1  2012 zkCleanup.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  1049 Oct  1  2012 zkCli.cmd
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  1512 Oct  1  2012 zkCli.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  1333 Oct  1  2012 zkEnv.cmd
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  2599 Oct  1  2012 zkEnv.sh
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  1084 Oct  1  2012 zkServer.cmd
-rwxr-xr-x 1 yun yun  5467 Oct  1  2012 zkServer.sh
-rw-rw-r-- 1 yun yun 17522 Jun 28 21:01 zookeeper.out
[yun@mini03 bin]$ ./zkServer.sh start 
JMX enabled by default
Using config: /app/zookeeper/bin/../conf/zoo.cfg
Starting zookeeper ... STARTED

6.4. 查询运行状态

# 其中mini03、mini04、mini06、mini07状态如下
[yun@mini03 bin]$ ./zkServer.sh status
JMX enabled by default
Using config: /app/zookeeper/bin/../conf/zoo.cfg
Mode: follower

# 其中mini05 状态如下
[yun@mini05 bin]$ ./zkServer.sh status
JMX enabled by default
Using config: /app/zookeeper/bin/../conf/zoo.cfg
Mode: leader

PS:4个follower 1个leader

7. Hadoop部署与配置修改

  注意:每台机器的Hadoop以及配置相同

7.1. 部署

[yun@mini01 software]$ pwd
/app/software
[yun@mini01 software]$ ll
total 194152
-rw-r--r-- 1 yun yun 198811365 Jun  8 16:36 CentOS-7.4_hadoop-2.7.6.tar.gz
[yun@mini01 software]$ tar xf CentOS-7.4_hadoop-2.7.6.tar.gz
[yun@mini01 software]$ mv hadoop-2.7.6/ /app/
[yun@mini01 software]$ cd
[yun@mini01 ~]$ ln -s hadoop-2.7.6/ hadoop
[yun@mini01 ~]$ ll
total 4
lrwxrwxrwx  1 yun yun  13 Jun  9 16:21 hadoop -> hadoop-2.7.6/
drwxr-xr-x  9 yun yun  149 Jun  8 16:36 hadoop-2.7.6
lrwxrwxrwx  1 yun yun  12 May 26 11:18 jdk -> jdk1.8.0_112
drwxr-xr-x  8 yun yun  255 Sep 23  2016 jdk1.8.0_112

7.2. 环境变量

[root@mini01 profile.d]# pwd
/etc/profile.d
[root@mini01 profile.d]# vim hadoop.sh
export HADOOP_HOME="/app/hadoop"
export PATH=$HADOOP_HOME/bin:$HADOOP_HOME/sbin:$PATH
 
[root@mini01 profile.d]# source /etc/profile  # 生效

7.3. core-site.xml

[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ pwd
/app/hadoop/etc/hadoop
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ vim core-site.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
<!--
……………………
-->

<!-- Put site-specific property overrides in this file. -->

<configuration>
  <!-- 指定hdfs的nameservice为bi -->
  <property>
    <name>fs.defaultFS</name>
    <value>hdfs://bi/</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定hadoop临时目录 -->
  <property>
    <name>hadoop.tmp.dir</name>
    <value>/app/hadoop/tmp</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定zookeeper地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>ha.zookeeper.quorum</name>
    <value>mini03:2181,mini04:2181,mini05:2181,mini06:2181,mini07:2181</value>
  </property>

</configuration>

7.4. hdfs-site.xml

[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ pwd
/app/hadoop/etc/hadoop
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ vim hdfs-site.xml 
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
<!--
  ……………………
-->

<!-- Put site-specific property overrides in this file. -->

<configuration>
  <!--指定hdfs的nameservice为bi,需要和core-site.xml中的保持一致 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.nameservices</name>
    <value>bi</value>
  </property>

  <!-- bi下面有两个NameNode,分别是nn1,nn2 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.ha.namenodes.bi</name>
    <value>nn1,nn2</value>
  </property>

  <!-- nn1的RPC通信地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.namenode.rpc-address.bi.nn1</name>
    <value>mini01:9000</value>
  </property>
  <!-- nn1的http通信地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.namenode.http-address.bi.nn1</name>
    <value>mini01:50070</value>
  </property>

  <!-- nn2的RPC通信地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.namenode.rpc-address.bi.nn2</name>
    <value>mini02:9000</value>
  </property>
  <!-- nn2的http通信地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.namenode.http-address.bi.nn2</name>
    <value>mini02:50070</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定NameNode的edits元数据在JournalNode上的存放位置 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.namenode.shared.edits.dir</name>
    <value>qjournal://mini05:8485;mini06:8485;mini07:8485/bi</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定JournalNode在本地磁盘存放数据的位置 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.journalnode.edits.dir</name>
    <value>/app/hadoop/journaldata</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 开启NameNode失败自动切换 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.ha.automatic-failover.enabled</name>
    <value>true</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 配置失败自动切换实现方式 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.client.failover.proxy.provider.bi</name>
    <value>org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.server.namenode.ha.ConfiguredFailoverProxyProvider</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 配置隔离机制方法,多个机制用换行分割,即每个机制暂用一行-->
  <!-- 其中shell(/bin/true) 表示可执行一个脚本  比如 shell(/app/yunwei/hadoop_fence.sh) -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.ha.fencing.methods</name>
    <value>
      sshfence
      shell(/bin/true)
    </value>
  </property>

  <!-- 使用sshfence隔离机制时需要ssh免登陆 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.ha.fencing.ssh.private-key-files</name>
    <value>/app/.ssh/id_rsa</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 配置sshfence隔离机制超时时间 单位:毫秒 -->
  <property>
    <name>dfs.ha.fencing.ssh.connect-timeout</name>
    <value>30000</value>
  </property>


</configuration>

7.5. mapred-site.xml

[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ pwd
/app/hadoop/etc/hadoop
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ cp -a mapred-site.xml.template mapred-site.xml
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ vim mapred-site.xml 
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
<!--
  ……………………
-->

<!-- Put site-specific property overrides in this file. -->

<configuration>
  <!-- 指定mr框架为yarn方式 -->
  <property>
    <name>mapreduce.framework.name</name>
    <value>yarn</value>
  </property>

</configuration>

7.6. yarn-site.xml

[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ pwd
/app/hadoop/etc/hadoop
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ vim yarn-site.xml
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!--
  ……………………
-->
<configuration>

<!-- Site specific YARN configuration properties -->
  <!-- 开启RM高可用 -->
  <property>
    <name>yarn.resourcemanager.ha.enabled</name>
    <value>true</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定RM的cluster id -->
  <property>
    <name>yarn.resourcemanager.cluster-id</name>
    <value>yrc</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定RM的名字 -->
  <property>
    <name>yarn.resourcemanager.ha.rm-ids</name>
    <value>rm1,rm2</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 分别指定RM的地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>yarn.resourcemanager.hostname.rm1</name>
    <value>mini03</value>
  </property>
  <property>
    <name>yarn.resourcemanager.hostname.rm2</name>
    <value>mini04</value>
  </property>

  <!-- 指定zk集群地址 -->
  <property>
    <name>yarn.resourcemanager.zk-address</name>
    <value>mini03:2181,mini04:2181,mini05:2181,mini06:2181,mini07:2181</value>
  </property>

  <!-- reduce 获取数据的方式 -->
  <property>
    <name>yarn.nodemanager.aux-services</name>
    <value>mapreduce_shuffle</value>
  </property>


</configuration>

7.7. 修改slaves

      slaves是指定子节点的位置,因为要在mini01上启动HDFS、在mini03启动yarn,所以mini01上的slaves文件指定的是datanode的位置,mini03上的slaves文件指定的是nodemanager的位置

[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ pwd
/app/hadoop/etc/hadoop
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ vim slaves
mini05
mini06
mini07

PS:改后配置后,将这些配置拷到其他Hadoop机器

8. 启动相关服务

  注意:第一次启动时严格按照下面的步骤!!!!!!!

8.1. 启动zookeeper集群

前面已经启动了,这里就不说了

8.2. 启动journalnode

# 根据规划在mini05、mini06、mini07 启动   
# 在第一次格式化的时候需要先启动journalnode  之后就不必了
[yun@mini05 ~]$ hadoop-daemon.sh start journalnode  # 已经配置环境变量,所以不用进入到响应的目录 
starting journalnode, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-journalnode-mini05.out
[yun@mini05 ~]$ jps
1281 QuorumPeerMain
1817 Jps
1759 JournalNode

8.3. 格式化HDFS

# 在mini01上执行命令
[yun@mini01 ~]$ hdfs namenode -format 
18/06/30 18:29:12 INFO namenode.NameNode: STARTUP_MSG:
/************************************************************
STARTUP_MSG: Starting NameNode
STARTUP_MSG:  host = mini01/10.0.0.111
STARTUP_MSG:  args = [-format]
STARTUP_MSG:  version = 2.7.6
STARTUP_MSG:  classpath = ………………
STARTUP_MSG:  build = Unknown -r Unknown; compiled by 'root' on 2018-06-08T08:30Z
STARTUP_MSG:  java = 1.8.0_112
************************************************************/
18/06/30 18:29:12 INFO namenode.NameNode: registered UNIX signal handlers for [TERM, HUP, INT]
18/06/30 18:29:12 INFO namenode.NameNode: createNameNode [-format]
Formatting using clusterid: CID-2385f26e-72e6-4935-aa09-47848b5ba4be
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: No KeyProvider found.
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: fsLock is fair: true
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Detailed lock hold time metrics enabled: false
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.DatanodeManager: dfs.block.invalidate.limit=1000
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.DatanodeManager: dfs.namenode.datanode.registration.ip-hostname-check=true
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: dfs.namenode.startup.delay.block.deletion.sec is set to 000:00:00:00.000
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: The block deletion will start around 2018 Jun 30 18:29:13
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map BlocksMap
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: VM type      = 64-bit
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: 2.0% max memory 966.7 MB = 19.3 MB
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^21 = 2097152 entries
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: dfs.block.access.token.enable=false
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: defaultReplication        = 3
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: maxReplication            = 512
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: minReplication            = 1
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: maxReplicationStreams      = 2
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: replicationRecheckInterval = 3000
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: encryptDataTransfer        = false
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: maxNumBlocksToLog          = 1000
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: fsOwner            = yun (auth:SIMPLE)
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: supergroup          = supergroup
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: isPermissionEnabled = true
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Determined nameservice ID: bi
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: HA Enabled: true
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Append Enabled: true
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map INodeMap
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: VM type      = 64-bit
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: 1.0% max memory 966.7 MB = 9.7 MB
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^20 = 1048576 entries
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSDirectory: ACLs enabled? false
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSDirectory: XAttrs enabled? true
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSDirectory: Maximum size of an xattr: 16384
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.NameNode: Caching file names occuring more than 10 times
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map cachedBlocks
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: VM type      = 64-bit
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: 0.25% max memory 966.7 MB = 2.4 MB
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^18 = 262144 entries
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: dfs.namenode.safemode.threshold-pct = 0.9990000128746033
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: dfs.namenode.safemode.min.datanodes = 0
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: dfs.namenode.safemode.extension    = 30000
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO metrics.TopMetrics: NNTop conf: dfs.namenode.top.window.num.buckets = 10
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO metrics.TopMetrics: NNTop conf: dfs.namenode.top.num.users = 10
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO metrics.TopMetrics: NNTop conf: dfs.namenode.top.windows.minutes = 1,5,25
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Retry cache on namenode is enabled
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Retry cache will use 0.03 of total heap and retry cache entry expiry time is 600000 millis
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map NameNodeRetryCache
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: VM type      = 64-bit
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: 0.029999999329447746% max memory 966.7 MB = 297.0 KB
18/06/30 18:29:13 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^15 = 32768 entries
18/06/30 18:29:14 INFO namenode.FSImage: Allocated new BlockPoolId: BP-1178102935-10.0.0.111-1530354554626
18/06/30 18:29:14 INFO common.Storage: Storage directory /app/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name has been successfully formatted.
18/06/30 18:29:14 INFO namenode.FSImageFormatProtobuf: Saving image file /app/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name/current/fsimage.ckpt_0000000000000000000 using no compression
18/06/30 18:29:14 INFO namenode.FSImageFormatProtobuf: Image file /app/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name/current/fsimage.ckpt_0000000000000000000 of size 320 bytes saved in 0 seconds.
18/06/30 18:29:15 INFO namenode.NNStorageRetentionManager: Going to retain 1 images with txid >= 0
18/06/30 18:29:15 INFO util.ExitUtil: Exiting with status 0
18/06/30 18:29:15 INFO namenode.NameNode: SHUTDOWN_MSG:
/************************************************************
SHUTDOWN_MSG: Shutting down NameNode at mini01/10.0.0.111
************************************************************/

拷贝到mini02

#格式化后会在根据core-site.xml中的hadoop.tmp.dir配置生成个文件,这里我配置的是/app/hadoop/tmp,然后将/app/hadoop/tmp拷贝到mini02的/app/hadoop/下。
# 方法1:
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ pwd
/app/hadoop
[yun@mini01 hadoop]$ scp -r tmp/ yun@mini02:/app/hadoop 
VERSION                          100%  202  189.4KB/s  00:00
seen_txid                        100%    2    1.0KB/s  00:00
fsimage_0000000000000000000.md5  100%  62    39.7KB/s  00:00
fsimage_0000000000000000000      100%  320  156.1KB/s  00:00

##########################3
# 方法2:##也可以这样,建议hdfs namenode -bootstrapStandby  # 不过需要mini02的Hadoop起来才行

8.4. 格式化ZKFC

#在mini01上执行一次即可
[yun@mini01 ~]$ hdfs zkfc -formatZK 
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO tools.DFSZKFailoverController: Failover controller configured for NameNode NameNode at mini01/10.0.0.111:9000
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:zookeeper.version=3.4.6-1569965, built on 02/20/2014 09:09 GMT
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:host.name=mini01
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.version=1.8.0_112
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.vendor=Oracle Corporation
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.home=/app/jdk1.8.0_112/jre
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.class.path=……………………
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.library.path=/app/hadoop-2.7.6/lib/native
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.io.tmpdir=/tmp
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.compiler=<NA>
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:os.name=Linux
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:os.arch=amd64
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:os.version=3.10.0-693.el7.x86_64
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:user.name=yun
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:user.home=/app
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:user.dir=/app/hadoop-2.7.6
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Initiating client connection, connectString=mini03:2181,mini04:2181,mini05:2181,mini06:2181,mini07:2181 sessionTimeout=5000 watcher=org.apache.hadoop.ha.ActiveStandbyElector$WatcherWithClientRef@7f3b84b8
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Opening socket connection to server mini04/10.0.0.114:2181. Will not attempt to authenticate using SASL (unknown error)
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Socket connection established to mini04/10.0.0.114:2181, initiating session
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Session establishment complete on server mini04/10.0.0.114:2181, sessionid = 0x4644fff9cb80000, negotiated timeout = 5000
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO ha.ActiveStandbyElector: Session connected.
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO ha.ActiveStandbyElector: Successfully created /hadoop-ha/bi in ZK.
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Session: 0x4644fff9cb80000 closed
18/06/30 18:54:30 INFO zookeeper.ClientCnxn: EventThread shut down

8.5. 启动HDFS

# 在mini01上执行
[yun@mini01 ~]$ start-dfs.sh 
Starting namenodes on [mini01 mini02]
mini01: starting namenode, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-namenode-mini01.out
mini02: starting namenode, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-namenode-mini02.out
mini07: starting datanode, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-datanode-mini07.out
mini06: starting datanode, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-datanode-mini06.out
mini05: starting datanode, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-datanode-mini05.out
Starting journal nodes [mini05 mini06 mini07]
mini07: journalnode running as process 1691. Stop it first.
mini06: journalnode running as process 1665. Stop it first.
mini05: journalnode running as process 1759. Stop it first.
Starting ZK Failover Controllers on NN hosts [mini01 mini02]
mini01: starting zkfc, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-zkfc-mini01.out
mini02: starting zkfc, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/hadoop-yun-zkfc-mini02.out

8.6. 启动YARN

#####注意#####:是在mini03上执行start-yarn.sh,把namenode和resourcemanager分开是因为性能问题
# 因为他们都要占用大量资源,所以把他们分开了,他们分开了就要分别在不同的机器上启动
[yun@mini03 ~]$ start-yarn.sh 
starting yarn daemons
starting resourcemanager, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/yarn-yun-resourcemanager-mini03.out
mini06: starting nodemanager, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/yarn-yun-nodemanager-mini06.out
mini07: starting nodemanager, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/yarn-yun-nodemanager-mini07.out
mini05: starting nodemanager, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/yarn-yun-nodemanager-mini05.out


################################
# 在mini04启动 resourcemanager
[yun@mini04 ~]$ yarn-daemon.sh start resourcemanager  # 也可用start-yarn.sh 
starting resourcemanager, logging to /app/hadoop-2.7.6/logs/yarn-yun-resourcemanager-mini04.out

8.7. 启动说明

# 第一次启动的时候请严格按照上面的步骤【第一次涉及格式化问题】

# 第二次以及之后,步骤为: 启动zookeeper、HDFS、YARN

9. 浏览访问

9.1. Hdfs访问

9.1.1. 正常情况访问

http://mini01:50070   

http://mini02:50070

 

 9.1.2. mini01挂了Active自动切换

# mini01操作
[yun@mini01 ~]$ jps
3584 DFSZKFailoverController
3283 NameNode
5831 Jps
[yun@mini01 ~]$ kill 3283
[yun@mini01 ~]$ jps
3584 DFSZKFailoverController
5893 Jps

Namenode挂了所以mini01不能访问
http://mini02:50070   

可见Hadoop已经切换过去了,之后mini01即使起来了,状态也只能为standby 。

9.2. Yarn访问

http://mini03:8088

http://mini04:8088
会直接跳转到http://mini03:8088/

# 该图从其他地方截取,所以不怎么匹配

# Linux下访问
[yun@mini01 ~]$ curl mini04:8088
This is standby RM. The redirect url is: http://mini03:8088/

HA完毕

10. 集群运维测试

10.1. Haadmin与状态切换管理

[yun@mini01 ~]$ hdfs haadmin
Usage: haadmin
    [-transitionToActive [--forceactive] <serviceId>]
    [-transitionToStandby <serviceId>]
    [-failover [--forcefence] [--forceactive] <serviceId> <serviceId>]
    [-getServiceState <serviceId>]
    [-checkHealth <serviceId>]
    [-help <command>]

Generic options supported are
-conf <configuration file>    specify an application configuration file
-D <property=value>            use value for given property
-fs <local|namenode:port>      specify a namenode
-jt <local|resourcemanager:port>    specify a ResourceManager
-files <comma separated list of files>    specify comma separated files to be copied to the map reduce cluster
-libjars <comma separated list of jars>    specify comma separated jar files to include in the classpath.
-archives <comma separated list of archives>    specify comma separated archives to be unarchived on the compute machines.

The general command line syntax is
bin/hadoop command [genericOptions] [commandOptions]

可以看到,状态操作的命令示例:

# 查看namenode工作状态 
hdfs haadmin -getServiceState nn1

# 将standby状态namenode切换到active
hdfs haadmin -transitionToActive nn1

# 将active状态namenode切换到standby
hdfs haadmin -transitionToStandby nn2

10.2. 测试集群工作状态的一些指令

测试集群工作状态的一些指令 :
hdfs dfsadmin -report    查看hdfs的各节点状态信息
hdfs haadmin -getServiceState nn1  # hdfs haadmin -getServiceState nn2      获取一个namenode节点的HA状态
hadoop-daemon.sh start namenode  单独启动一个namenode进程
hadoop-daemon.sh start zkfc  单独启动一个zkfc进程

10.3. Datanode动态上下线

Datanode动态上下线很简单,步骤如下:

  a)  准备一台服务器,设置好环境

  b)  部署hadoop的安装包,并同步集群配置

  c)  联网上线,新datanode会自动加入集群

  d)  如果是一次增加大批datanode,还应该做集群负载重均衡

10.4. 数据块的balance

启动balancer的命令:

start-balancer.sh -threshold 8

运行之后,会有Balancer进程出现:

上述命令设置了Threshold为8%,那么执行balancer命令的时候,首先统计所有DataNode的磁盘利用率的均值,然后判断如果某一个DataNode的磁盘利用率超过这个均值Threshold,那么将会把这个DataNode的block转移到磁盘利用率低的DataNode,这对于新节点的加入来说十分有用。Threshold的值为1到100之间,不显示的进行参数设置的话,默认是10。

Hadoop2.3-HA高可用集群环境搭建  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-03/142155.htm
Hadoop项目之基于CentOS7的Cloudera 5.10.1(CDH)的安装部署  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-04/143095.htm
Hadoop2.7.2集群搭建详解(高可用)  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-03/142052.htm
使用Ambari来部署Hadoop集群(搭建内网HDP源)  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-03/142136.htm
Ubuntu 14.04下Hadoop集群安装  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-02/140783.htm
CentOS 6.7安装Hadoop 2.7.2  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-08/146232.htm
Ubuntu 16.04上构建分布式Hadoop-2.7.3集群  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-07/145503.htm
CentOS 7 下 Hadoop 2.6.4 分布式集群环境搭建  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-06/144932.htm
Hadoop2.7.3+Spark2.1.0完全分布式集群搭建过程  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-06/144926.htm
CentOS 7.4下编译安装Hadoop 2.7.6 及所需文件  https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-06/152786.htm
Ubuntu 16.04.3 下安装配置 Hadoop https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-04/151993.htm

更多Hadoop相关信息见Hadoop 专题页面 http://www.linuxidc.com/topicnews.aspx?tid=13

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本文永久更新链接地址https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-08/153352.htm

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