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如何在CentOS 7/6,RHEL 7/6和Fedora 28/27/26上安装MySQL 8.0

[日期:2018-12-04] 来源:Linux公社  作者:醉落红尘 [字体: ]

MySQL是一个免费的开源数据库管理系统,常用于Web应用程序中,用于存储和检索记录和信息。

MySQL最初由MYSQL AB开发,现在由Oracle Corporation拥有。 它是Linux操作系统的主要数据库应用程序,直到MySQL的一个分支MariaDB才出现。

在本文中,我们将讨论如何在CentOS 7/6,RHEL 7/6和Fedora 28/27/26上安装MySQL 8.0的基本过程。

添加MySQL存储库

MySQL不再通过基本操作系统映像分发或在OS存储库中可用。 因此,您需要添加MySQL的官方存储库来安装MySQL社区服务器。

### CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 ###

rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-el7-1.noarch.rpm

### CentOS 6 / RHEL 6 ###

rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-el6-1.noarch.rpm

### Fedora 28 ###

rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-fc28-1.noarch.rpm

### Fedora 27 ###

rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-fc27-1.noarch.rpm

### Fedora 26 ###

rpm -ivh https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-fc26-1.noarch.rpm

确保使用以下命令添加并启用了MySQL存储库。

yum repolist all | grep mysql | grep enabled

输出:可能看起来像。

mysql-connectors-community/x86_64  MySQL Connectors Community     enabled:    51
mysql-tools-community/x86_64       MySQL Tools Community          enabled:    63
mysql80-community/x86_64           MySQL 8.0 Community Server     enabled:    17

安装 MySQL Community Server

Oracle目前提供稳定版本(v8.0和v5.7)。 您可以选择要在计算机上安装的那个。

安装 MySQL 8.0

在CentOS/RHEL中使用yum命令,在Fedora中使用dnf命令安装最新的稳定版MySQL。

### CentOS 7/6 & RHEL 7/6 ###

yum -y install mysql-community-server

### Fedora 28/27/26 ###

dnf -y install mysql-community-server

安装 MySQL 5.7

如果您想尝试旧版本的MySQL,请在您的计算机上安装MySQL 5.7。

### CentOS 7/6 & RHEL 7/6 ###

yum -y install mysql-community-server  --disablerepo=mysql80-community --enablerepo=mysql57-community

### Fedora 28/27/26 ###

dnf -y install mysql-community-server  --disablerepo=mysql80-community --enablerepo=mysql57-community

启动 MySQL 服务

安装MySQL后,可以使用以下命令启动MySQL服务器。

### CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Fedora 28/27/26 ###

systemctl start mysqld

### CentOS 6 / RHEL 6 ###

service mysqld start

在系统启动时启用MySQL服务器。

### CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Fedora 28/27/26 ###

systemctl enable mysqld

### CentOS 6 / RHEL 6 ###

chkconfig mysqld on

使用以下命令验证是否已启动MySQL服务器。

### CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Fedora 28/27/26 ###

systemctl status mysqld

### CentOS 6 / RHEL 6 ###

service mysqld status

输出:

CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 / Fedora:

 mysqld.service - MySQL Server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Fri 2018-12-04 19:19:36 EDT; 21s ago
     Docs: man:mysqld(8)
           http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html
 Main PID: 8452 (mysqld)
   Status: "SERVER_OPERATING"
   CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service
           └─8452 /usr/sbin/mysqld

Dec 04 19:19:23 server.itzgeek.local systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Server...
Dec 04 19:19:36 server.itzgeek.local systemd[1]: Started MySQL Server.

CentOS 6 / RHEL 6 :

mysqld (pid 2258) is running...

MySQL服务器安全设置

在CentOS/RHEL/Fedora中,可以在/var/log/mysqld.log中找到初始的MySQL root密码。 您可以使用以下命令从日志文件中获取密码。

cat /var/log/mysqld.log | grep -i 'temporary password'

输出:

2017-11-25T07:02:29.549979Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: Ed*Sn(6R9q0h

现在,您需要运行mysql_secure_installation来保护MySQL安装。 此命令负责设置root密码,删除匿名用户,远程禁止root登录等。

mysql_secure_installation

输出:

Securing the MySQL server deployment.

Enter password for user root:  <== Enter Root password taken from previous step

The existing password for the user account root has expired. Please set a new password.

New password: <== Enter New Root Password

Re-enter new password: <== Re-Enter New Root Password 
VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN can be used to test passwords
and improve security. It checks the strength of password
and allows the users to set only those passwords which are
secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD plugin?

Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: No <== Already high secure enough
Using existing password for root.
Change the password for root ? ((Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : no <== Since the password is already changed in previous step, type no.

 ... skipping.
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user,
allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have
a user account created for them. This is intended only for
testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother.
You should remove them before moving into a production
environment.

Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : yes <== Remove Anonymous user
Success.


Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from
'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at
the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : yes <== Disable remote root login
Success.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that
anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing,
and should be removed before moving into a production
environment.


Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : yes <== Remove test database
 - Dropping test database...
Success.

 - Removing privileges on test database...
Success.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes
made so far will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : yes <== Reload Privilege
Success.

All done!

使用MySQL服务器

使用root用户及其密码登录MySQL服务器。

mysql -u root -p

输出:
MySQL 8.0:

Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 12
Server version: 8.0.11 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

MySQL 5.7:

Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5
Server version: 5.7.22 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

安装phpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin是一个基于Web的开源管理工具,用于管理MySQL和MariaDB数据库。 按照以下链接,根据您的操作系统安装和配置phpMyAdmin。

在Fedora 27/Fedora 26/25/24上安装phpMyAdmin 见 https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-12/155691.htm

如何在CentOS 7/RHEL 7上安装phpMyAdmin 见 https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-12/155690.htm

Linux公社的RSS地址https://www.linuxidc.com/rssFeed.aspx

本文永久更新链接地址https://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2018-12/155689.htm

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