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vmrun命令使用详解

[日期:2019-01-14] 来源:Linux社区  作者:Linux [字体: ]

VMWare提供了vmrun与VIX API两种手段使用户可以通过程序对虚拟机进行控制。

 在官方文档中给出了详细的说明和示例代码。
          vmrun:http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vix162_vmrun_command.pdf
          VIX API: http://www.vmware.com/support/developer/vix-api/

      vmrun是一种命令行控制的手段,但是可以通过Shell脚本实现连续多个操作的自动化。而VIXAPI则是一种程序设计的方案,支持C、Perl和VB三种语言。从功能上来说,VIXAPI提供虚拟机状态查询函数,有更强的能力。例如:控制一个虚拟机恢复到某个镜像,然后登录到GuestOS中,运行其中的某个可执行文件在这3个动作中,恢复到指定镜像是异步操作,如果使用VIXAPI实现,可以查询恢复操作是否完成,恢复完成之后再尝试登录到GuestOS;而要通过vmrun实现则比较困难,因为vmrun不具有查询虚拟机状态的能力,所以只能sleep足够长的时间之后再去执行登录操作。

      但vmrun也不是完全没有优势。分别用vmrun和VIX API实现每隔一段时间就将虚拟机恢复到指定虚拟机镜像的功能,当双方都只需要操作一台虚拟机的时候,都能做到长期稳定工作;当它们需要面对10台甚至更多
 的虚拟机的时候,VIX API很快就会出故障(1),而vmrun仍然能够稳定地工作。

    (1)通常遇到的故障是:虚拟机提示缺少某个.vmdk文件。原因是VMWare虚拟机启动时会创建临时的.vmdk文件,并通过修改.vmx中的硬盘路径,使当前的硬盘为临时的.vmdk。当VIXAPI面对大量虚拟机时,常常会与需要操作的虚拟机失去连接,此时.vmx文件中的硬盘路径被修改,但是临时.vmdk文件被删除,于是虚拟机报错。要修复这个故障,只需要把.vmx文件中的硬盘 路径改为实际存在的某个.vmdk文件即可

1、简介

      VMWare提供了vmrun与VIX API两种手段使用户可以通过程序对虚拟机进行控制。vmrun是一种命令行控制的手段,但是可以通过Shell脚本实现连续多个操作的自动化。

2、语法

Usage: vmrun COMMAND [PARAMETERS]
 Authentication flags
 -gu <userName in guest OS>
 -gp <password in guest OS>


 POWER COMMANDS          PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
 start                    Path to vmx file    Start a VM or Team
                          or vmtm file
                          [gui|nogui]
 stop                    Path to vmx file    Stop a VM or Team
                          or vmtm file
                          [hard|soft]
 reset                    Path to vmx file    Reset a VM or Team
                          or vmtm file
                          [hard|soft]
 suspend                  Path to vmx file    Suspend a VM or Team
                          or vmtm file
                          [hard|soft]


 SNAPSHOT COMMANDS        PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
 listSnapshots            Path to vmx file    List all snapshots in a VM
 snapshot                Path to vmx file    Create a snapshot of a VM
                          Snapshot name
 deleteSnapshot          Path to vmx file    Remove a snapshot from a VM
                          Snapshot name
 revertToSnapshot        Path to vmx file    Set VM state to a snapshot
                          Snapshot name


 GUEST OS COMMANDS        PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
 runProgramInGuest        Path to vmx file    Run a program in Guest OS
                          Program
                          [Program arguments]
 fileExistsInGuest        Path to vmx file    Check if a file exists in Guest OS
                          Path to file in guest
 setSharedFolderState    Path to vmx file    Modify a Host-Guest shared folder
                          Share name
                          New host path
 addSharedFolder          Path to vmx file    Add a Host-Guest shared folder
                          Share name
                          Host path
 removeSharedFolder      Path to vmx file    Remove a Host-Guest shared folder
                          Share name
 listProcessesInGuest    Path to vmx file    List running processes in Guest OS
 killProcessInGuest      Path to vmx file    Kill a process in Guest OS
                          process id
 runScriptInGuest        Path to vmx file    Run a script in Guest OS
                          Interpreter path
                          script_text
 deleteFileInGuest        Path to vmx file    Delete a file in Guest OS
                          File
 createDirectoryInGuest  Path to vmx file    Create a directory in Guest OS
                          Directory path
 deleteDirectoryInGuest  Path to vmx file    Delete a directory in Guest OS
                          Directory path
 listDirectoryInGuest    Path to vmx file    List a directory in Guest OS
                          Directory path
 copyFileFromHostToGuest  Path to vmx file    Copy a file from host OS to guest OS
                          Path on host
                          Path in guest
 copyFileFromGuestToHost  Path to vmx file    Copy a file from guest OS to host OS
                          Path in guest
                          Path on host
 renameFileInGuest        Path to vmx file    Rename a file in Guest OS
                          Original name
                          New name

 GENERAL COMMANDS        PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
 list                                          List all running VMs
 upgradevm                Path to vmx file    Upgrade VM file format, virtual hw
 installtools            Path to vmx file    Install Tools in Guest OS

3、示例

        1)开启虚拟机

        vmrun start "/opt/VM_OS/RH_OS_B/Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 64-bit.vmx" nogui|gui

        2)停止虚拟机

        vmrun stop "/opt/VM_OS/RH_OS_B/Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 64-bit.vmx" nogui|gui

        3)重启虚拟机
        vmrun restart "/opt/VM_OS/RH_OS_B/Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 64-bit.vmx" nogui|gui

      4)列出正在运行的虚拟机
        vmrun list

下面整理了一发命令:

vmrun -T ws start "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" nogui #无图形界面启动虚拟机(-T是区分宿主机的类型,ws|server|server1|fusion|esx|vc|player,常用的是ws|esx|player)

vmrun start "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" gui #带图形界面启动虚拟机

vmrun stop "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" #可跟参数hard强制关闭虚拟机(相当于直接关电源)|soft正常关闭虚拟机

vmrun reset "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" #可跟参数hard冷重启虚拟机|soft热重启虚拟机

vmrun suspend  "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" #可分参数hard|soft挂起虚拟机

vmrun pause  "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" #暂停虚拟机

vmrun unpause  "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" #停止暂停虚拟机   

vmrun list #列出正在运行的虚拟机

vmrun -T ws snapshot "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" snapshotName #创建一个快照

vmrun -T ws reverToSnapshot "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" snapshotName #从一个快照中恢复虚拟机

vmrun -T ws listSnapshots "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" #列出快照

vmrun -T ws deleteSnapshot "/vmware/lvs1/lvs.vmx" snapshotName #删除一个快照

vmrun命令帮助

EPP:/vmware # vmrun
 
vmrun version 1.15.0 build-2985596
 
Usage: vmrun [AUTHENTICATION-FLAGS] COMMAND [PARAMETERS]
 
 
 
AUTHENTICATION-FLAGS
--------------------
These must appear before the command and any command parameters.
 
  -h <hostName>  (not needed for Workstation)
  -P <hostPort>  (not needed for Workstation)
  -T <hostType> (ws|server|server1|fusion|esx|vc|player)
    for example, use '-T server' for Server 2.0
                  use '-T server1' for Server 1.0
                  use '-T ws' for VMware Workstation
                  use '-T ws-shared' for VMware Workstation (shared mode)
                  use '-T esx' for VMware ESX
                  use '-T vc' for VMware vCenter Server
  -u <userName in host OS>  (not needed for Workstation)
  -p <password in host OS>  (not needed for Workstation)
  -vp <password for encrypted virtual machine>
  -gu <userName in guest OS>
  -gp <password in guest OS>
 
 
 
POWER COMMANDS          PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
--------------          ----------          -----------
start                    Path to vmx file    Start a VM or Team
                        [gui|nogui]
 
stop                    Path to vmx file    Stop a VM or Team
                        [hard|soft]
 
reset                    Path to vmx file    Reset a VM or Team
                        [hard|soft]
 
suspend                  Path to vmx file    Suspend a VM or Team
                        [hard|soft]
 
pause                    Path to vmx file    Pause a VM
 
unpause                  Path to vmx file    Unpause a VM
 
 
 
SNAPSHOT COMMANDS        PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
-----------------        ----------          -----------
listSnapshots            Path to vmx file    List all snapshots in a VM
                        [showTree]
 
snapshot                Path to vmx file    Create a snapshot of a VM
                        Snapshot name
 
deleteSnapshot          Path to vmx file    Remove a snapshot from a VM
                        Snapshot name
                        [andDeleteChildren]
 
revertToSnapshot        Path to vmx file    Set VM state to a snapshot
                        Snapshot name
 
 
 
GUEST OS COMMANDS        PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
-----------------        ----------          -----------
runProgramInGuest        Path to vmx file    Run a program in Guest OS
                        [-noWait]
                        [-activeWindow]
                        [-interactive]
                        Complete-Path-To-Program
                        [Program arguments]
 
fileExistsInGuest        Path to vmx file    Check if a file exists in Guest OS
                        Path to file in guest
 
directoryExistsInGuest  Path to vmx file    Check if a directory exists in Guest OS
                        Path to directory in guest
 
setSharedFolderState    Path to vmx file    Modify a Host-Guest shared folder
                        Share name
                        Host path
                        writable | readonly
 
addSharedFolder          Path to vmx file    Add a Host-Guest shared folder
                        Share name
                        New host path
 
removeSharedFolder      Path to vmx file    Remove a Host-Guest shared folder
                        Share name
 
enableSharedFolders      Path to vmx file    Enable shared folders in Guest
                        [runtime]
 
disableSharedFolders    Path to vmx file    Disable shared folders in Guest
                        [runtime]
 
listProcessesInGuest    Path to vmx file    List running processes in Guest OS
 
killProcessInGuest      Path to vmx file    Kill a process in Guest OS
                        process id
 
runScriptInGuest        Path to vmx file    Run a script in Guest OS
                        [-noWait]
                        [-activeWindow]
                        [-interactive]
                        Interpreter path
                        Script text
 
deleteFileInGuest        Path to vmx file    Delete a file in Guest OS
Path in guest           
 
createDirectoryInGuest  Path to vmx file    Create a directory in Guest OS
Directory path in guest 
 
deleteDirectoryInGuest  Path to vmx file    Delete a directory in Guest OS
Directory path in guest 
 
CreateTempfileInGuest    Path to vmx file    Create a temporary file in Guest OS
 
listDirectoryInGuest    Path to vmx file    List a directory in Guest OS
                        Directory path in guest
 
CopyFileFromHostToGuest  Path to vmx file    Copy a file from host OS to guest OS
Path on host            Path in guest
                       
 
CopyFileFromGuestToHost  Path to vmx file    Copy a file from guest OS to host OS
Path in guest            Path on host
                       
 
renameFileInGuest        Path to vmx file    Rename a file in Guest OS
                        Original name
                        New name
 
captureScreen            Path to vmx file    Capture the screen of the VM to a local file
Path on host           
 
writeVariable            Path to vmx file    Write a variable in the VM state
                        [runtimeConfig|guestEnv|guestVar]
                        variable name
                        variable value
 
readVariable            Path to vmx file    Read a variable in the VM state
                        [runtimeConfig|guestEnv|guestVar]
                        variable name
 
getGuestIPAddress        Path to vmx file    Gets the IP address of the guest
                        [-wait]
 
 
 
GENERAL COMMANDS        PARAMETERS          DESCRIPTION
----------------        ----------          -----------
list                                          List all running VMs
 
upgradevm                Path to vmx file    Upgrade VM file format, virtual hw
 
installTools            Path to vmx file    Install Tools in Guest
 
checkToolsState          Path to vmx file    Check the current Tools state
 
register                Path to vmx file    Register a VM
 
unregister              Path to vmx file    Unregister a VM
 
listRegisteredVM                              List registered VMs
 
deleteVM                Path to vmx file    Delete a VM
 
clone                    Path to vmx file    Create a copy of the VM
                        Path to destination vmx file
                        full|linked
                        [-snapshot=Snapshot Name]
                        [-cloneName=Name]
 
Examples:
 
 
Starting a virtual machine with Workstation on a Windows host
  vmrun -T ws start "c:\my VMs\myVM.vmx"
 
 
Stopping a virtual machine on an ESX host
  vmrun -T esx -h https://myHost.com/sdk -u hostUser -p hostPassword stop "[storage1] vm/myVM.vmx"
 
 
Running a program in a virtual machine with Workstation on a Windows host with Windows guest
  vmrun -T ws -gu guestUser -gp guestPassword runProgramInGuest "c:\my VMs\myVM.vmx" "c:\Program Files\myProgram.exe"
 
 
Running a program in a virtual machine with Server on a Linux host with Linux guest
  vmrun -T server -h https://myHost.com:8333/sdk -u hostUser -p hostPassword -gu guestUser -gp guestPassword runProgramInGuest "[standard] vm/myVM.vmx" /usr/bin/X11/xclock -display :0
 
 
Creating a snapshot of a virtual machine with Workstation on a Windows host
  vmrun -T ws snapshot "c:\my VMs\myVM.vmx" mySnapshot
 
 
Reverting to a snapshot with Workstation on a Windows host
  vmrun -T ws revertToSnapshot "c:\my VMs\myVM.vmx" mySnapshot
 
 
Deleting a snapshot with Workstation on a Windows host
  vmrun -T ws deleteSnapshot "c:\my VMs\myVM.vmx" mySnapshot
 
Enabling Shared Folders with Workstation on a Windows host
  vmrun -T ws enableSharedFolders "c:\my VMs\myVM.vmx"
EPP:/vmware #

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