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使用OpenSSL创建CA和申请证书

[日期:2019-11-17] 来源:Linux社区  作者:何小帅 [字体: ]

OpenSSL简介

OpenSSL是一种加密工具套件,可实现安全套接字层(SSL v2 / v3)和传输层安全性(TLS v1)网络协议以及它们所需的相关加密标准。

openssl命令行工具用于从shell程序使用OpenSSL加密库的各种加密功能。 它可以用于:

  • 创建和管理私钥,公钥和参数
  • 公钥加密操作
  • 创建X.509证书,CSR和CRL
  • 消息摘要的计算
  • 使用密码进行加密和解密
  • SSL / TLS客户端和服务器测试
  • 处理S / MIME签名或加密的邮件
  • 时间戳记请求,生成和验证

openssl配置文件及三种策略

配置文件
/etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf

三种策略
match(匹配):要求申请填写的信息跟CA设置信息必须一致
optional(可选):可有可无,跟CA设置信息可不一致
supplied(提供):必须填写这项申请信息

创建私有CA和申请、颁发证书文件(以下操作都是在一台机器上执行)

1.创建所需要的文件

[root@CentOS7 ~]# cd /etc/pki/CA/
[root@CentOS7 CA]# touch index.txt  生成证书索引数据库文件
[root@CentOS7 CA]# echo 01 > serial 指定第一个颁发证书的序列号

2.CA自签证书

2.1生成私钥
[root@CentOS7 CA]# (umask 066;openssl genrsa -out private/cakey.pem 2048)
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
...................................................................................+++
.+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
2.2生成自签名证书
[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl req -new -x509 -key private/cakey.pem -days 3650 -out cacert.pem
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) []:beijing
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:beijing
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:abc
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT  
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:hechunping
Email Address []:root@abc.com

选项说明:
-new:生成新证书签署请求
-x509:专用于CA生成自签证书
-key:生成请求时用到的私钥文件
-days n:证书的有效期限
-out /PATH/TO/SOMECERTFILE: 证书的保存路径

3.颁发证书

3.1在需要使用证书的主机生成证书请求(本实验是在本机)
3.1.1生成私钥
[root@CentOS7 CA]# (umask 066;openssl genrsa -out /data/test.key 2048)
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
..................................................+++
...............................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
3.1.2生成证书申请文件
[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl req -new -key /data/test.key -out /data/test.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) []:beijing
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:beijing
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:abc
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:hechunping
Email Address []:root@abc.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

3.2将证书申请文件传输给CA(两台不同的主机可以使用scp命令传输)

3.3CA签署证书,并将证书颁发给请求者
[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl ca -in /data/test.csr -out certs/test.crt -days 100
Using configuration from /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
Certificate Details:
        Serial Number: 1 (0x1)
        Validity
            Not Before: Nov 10 13:45:34 2019 GMT
            Not After : Feb 18 13:45:34 2020 GMT
        Subject:
            countryName               = CN
            stateOrProvinceName       = beijing
            organizationName          = abc
            organizationalUnitName    = IT
            commonName                = hechunping
            emailAddress              = root@abc.com
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: 
                CA:FALSE
            Netscape Comment: 
                OpenSSL Generated Certificate
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                4C:AE:F0:13:F0:CD:8F:B5:F7:3F:1B:C8:E4:77:91:02:9E:88:6B:5A
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                keyid:E3:C1:5E:6D:94:5E:F2:AE:16:67:79:2C:69:B5:B9:10:D9:E0:51:BE

Certificate is to be certified until Feb 18 13:45:34 2020 GMT (100 days)
Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y

1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

注意:默认要求 countryName(国家),stateOrProvinceName(省),organizationName(公司)三项必须和CA一致

3.4查看证书中的信息

[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl x509 -in certs/test.crt -noout -text|issuer|subject|serial|dates

3.5查看指定编号的证书状态

[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl ca -status 01
Using configuration from /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
01=Valid (V)

4.吊销证书

4.1在客户端获取要吊销的证书的serial
[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl x509 -in certs/test.crt -noout -serial -subject
serial=01
subject= /C=CN/ST=beijing/O=abc/OU=IT/CN=hechunping/emailAddress=root@abc.com
4.2在CA上,根据客户提交的serial与subject信息,对比检验是否与index.txt文件中的信息一致
[root@CentOS7 CA]# cat index.txt
V   200218134534Z       01  unknown /C=CN/ST=beijing/O=abc/OU=IT/CN=hechunping/emailAddress=root@abc.com
4.2.1吊销证书
[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl ca -revoke newcerts/01.pem 
Using configuration from /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf
Revoking Certificate 01.
Data Base Updated

4.2指定第一个吊销证书的编号,注意:第一次更新证书吊销列表前才需要执行。

[root@CentOS7 CA]# echo 01 > crlnumber

4.3更新证书吊销列表

[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl ca -gencrl -out crl.pem
Using configuration from /etc/pki/tls/openssl.cnf

4.4查看crl文件

[root@CentOS7 CA]# openssl crl -in crl.pem -noout -text

将申请下来的证书导出到windows中查看

1.在windows上按"win+R"键,然后运行"certmgr.msc"命令。
2.找到“受信任的根证书颁发机构”右键单击“所有任务”--->“导入”,然后按照向导选择在Linux申请下来的证书。
3.查看证书信息

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