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Linux 硬盘,格式化,分区 入门详解

[日期:2018-08-19] 来源:Linux社区  作者:Linux [字体: ]

disk是Linux自带的硬盘分区工具,可以对硬盘进行分区,或者对硬盘分区进行调整。

首先选择要进行操作的磁盘

[root@linuxidc ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb

输入m,列出可以执行的命令

Command (m for help): m
 Command action
 a toggle a bootable flag
 b edit bsd disklabel
 c toggle the dos compatibility flag
 d delete a partition
 l list known partition types
 m print this menu
 n add a new partition
 o create a new empty DOS partition table
 p print the partition table
 q quit without saving changes
 s create a new empty Sun disklabel
 t change a partition's system id
 u change display/entry units
 v verify the partition table
 w write table to disk and exit
 x extra functionality (experts only)

输入p,列出磁盘目前的分区情况

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 3221 MB, 3221225472 bytes
 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 391 cylinders
 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 /dev/sdb1 1 1 8001 8e Linux LVM
 /dev/sdb2 2 26 200812+ 83 Linux

输入d,然后选择分区,删除现有分区

Command (m for help): d
 Partition number (1-4): 1

Command (m for help): d
 Selected partition 2

查看分区情况,确认分区已经删除

Command (m for help): print

Disk /dev/sdb: 3221 MB, 3221225472 bytes
 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 391 cylinders
 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

Command (m for help):

输入n,建立新的磁盘分区,首先建立两个主磁盘分区

Command (m for help): n
 Command action
 e extended
 p primary partition (1-4)
 p //建立主分区
Partition number (1-4): 1 //分区号
First cylinder (1-391, default 1): //分区起始位置
Using default value 1
 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-391, default 391): 100 //分区结束位置,单位为扇区

Command (m for help): n //再建立一个分区
Command action
 e extended
 p primary partition (1-4)
 p
 Partition number (1-4): 2 //分区号为2
 First cylinder (101-391, default 101):
 Using default value 101
 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (101-391, default 391): +200M //分区结束位置,单位为M

确认分区建立成功

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 3221 MB, 3221225472 bytes
 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 391 cylinders
 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 /dev/sdb1 1 100 803218+ 83 Linux
 /dev/sdb2 101 125 200812+ 83 Linux

再建立一个逻辑分区

Command (m for help): n
 Command action
 e extended
 p primary partition (1-4)
 e //选择扩展分区
Partition number (1-4): 3
 First cylinder (126-391, default 126):
 Using default value 126
 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (126-391, default 391):
 Using default value 391

确认扩展分区建立成功

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 3221 MB, 3221225472 bytes
 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 391 cylinders
 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 /dev/sdb1 1 100 803218+ 83 Linux
 /dev/sdb2 101 125 200812+ 83 Linux
/dev/sdb3 126 391 2136645 5 Extended

在扩展分区上建立两个逻辑分区

Command (m for help): n
 Command action
 l logical (5 or over)
 p primary partition (1-4)
 l //选择逻辑分区
First cylinder (126-391, default 126):
 Using default value 126
 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (126-391, default 391): +400M

Command (m for help): n
 Command action
 l logical (5 or over)
 p primary partition (1-4)
 l
 First cylinder (176-391, default 176):
 Using default value 176
 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (176-391, default 391):
 Using default value 391

确认逻辑分区建立成功

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 3221 MB, 3221225472 bytes
 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 391 cylinders
 Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
 /dev/sdb1 1 100 803218+ 83 Linux
 /dev/sdb2 101 125 200812+ 83 Linux
 /dev/sdb3 126 391 2136645 5 Extended
 /dev/sdb5 126 175 401593+ 83 Linux
 /dev/sdb6 176 391 1734988+ 83 Linux

Command (m for help):

从上面的结果我们可以看到,在硬盘sdb我们建立了2个主分区(sdb1,sdb2),1个扩展分区(sdb3),2个逻辑分区(sdb5,sdb6)

注意:主分区和扩展分区的磁盘号位1-4,也就是说最多有4个主分区或者扩展分区,逻辑分区开始的磁盘号为5,因此在这个实验中试没有sdb4的。

最后对分区操作进行保存

Command (m for help): w
 The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
 Syncing disks.

建立好分区之后我们还需要对分区进行格式化才能在系统中使用磁盘。

在sdb1上建立ext2分区

[root@linuxidc ~]# mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
 Filesystem label=
 OS type: Linux
 Block size=4096 (log=2)
 Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 100576 inodes, 200804 blocks
 10040 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
 First data block=0
 Maximum filesystem blocks=209715200
 7 block groups
 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
 14368 inodes per group
 Superblock backups stored on blocks:
 32768, 98304, 163840

Writing inode tables: done
 Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 32 mounts or
 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

在sdb6上建立ext3分区

[root@linuxidc ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb6
 mke2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
 Filesystem label=
 OS type: Linux
 Block size=4096 (log=2)
 Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
 217280 inodes, 433747 blocks
 21687 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
 First data block=0
 Maximum filesystem blocks=444596224
 14 block groups
 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
 15520 inodes per group
 Superblock backups stored on blocks:
 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912

Writing inode tables: done
 Creating journal (8192 blocks): done
 Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 32 mounts or
 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
 [root@linuxidc ~]#

建立两个目录/Oracle和/web,将新建好的两个分区挂载到系统

[root@linuxidc ~]# mkdir /oracle
 [root@linuxidc ~]# mkdir /web
 [root@linuxidc ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /oracle
 [root@linuxidc ~]# mount /dev/sdb6 /web

查看分区挂载情况

[root@linuxidc ~]# df -h
文件系统 容量 已用 可用 已用% 挂载点
/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00
 6.7G 2.8G 3.6G 44% /
 /dev/sda1 99M 12M 82M 13% /boot
 tmpfs 125M 0 125M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb1 773M 808K 733M 1% /oracle
 /dev/sdb6 1.7G 35M 1.6G 3% /web

如果需要每次开机自动挂载则需要修改/etc/fstab文件,加入两行配置

[root@linuxidc ~]# vim /etc/fstab

/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 / ext3 defaults 1 1
 LABEL=/boot /boot ext3 defaults 1 2
 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
 devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0
 sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0
 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
 /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01 swap swap defaults 0 0
/dev/sdb1 /oracle ext2 defaults 0 0
 /dev/sdb6 /web ext3 defaults 0 0

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相关资讯       Linux分区  Linux格式化  Linux硬盘 
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