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基于Keepalived+Varnish+Nginx实现的高可用LAMP架构

[日期:2018-09-20] 来源:Linux社区  作者:walk1314 [字体: ]

基于Keepalived+Varnish+Nginx实现的高可用LAMP架构

注意:各节点的时间需要同步(ntpdate ntp1.aliyun.com),关闭firewalld(systemctl stop firewalld.service,systemctl disable firewalld.service),设置selinux为permissive(setenforce 0 或 vim /etc/selinux/config);同时确保DR1和DR2节点的网卡支持MULTICAST(多播)通信。通过命令ifconfig可以查看到是否开启了MULTICAST:

       

搭建RS1(RS1提供mariadb服务和静态资源)

[root@RS1 Desktop]# yum -y install mariadb-server httpd
[root@RS1 Desktop]# vim /etc/my.cnf
    [mysqld]
    ...
    skip-name-resolve=ON
    innodb-file-per-table=ON
    ...
[root@RS1 Desktop]# systemctl start mariadb
[root@RS1 Desktop]# mysql_secure_installation  #进行数据库相关安全设置
    ...
[root@RS1 Desktop]# mysql -uroot -p
    Enter password:
    MariaDB [(none)]> create database wordpress;
    MariaDB [(none)]> grant all on wordpress.* to 'wpuser'@'10.10.0.%' identified by '123456';
    MariaDB [(none)]> flush privileges;
    MariaDB [(none)]> exit;
[root@RS1 Desktop]# wget https://cn.wordpress.org/wordpress-4.9.4-zh_CN.tar.gz
[root@RS1 Desktop]# tar xf wordpress-4.9.4-zh_CN.tar.gz -C /var/www/html
[root@RS1 Desktop]# vim /var/www/html/index.html
    <h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
[root@RS1 Desktop]# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf
    <virtualhost *:80>
        servername www.test.org
        DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
        Documentroot /var/www/html
        ProxyRequests off
        ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*\.php)$ fcgi://10.10.0.22:9000/var/www/html/$1
        ProxyPassMatch ^/(ping|status)$ fcgi://10.10.0.22:9000/$1
        <Directory />
            options FollowSymlinks
            Allowoverride none
            Require all granted
        </Directory>
    </virtualhost>
[root@RS1 Desktop]# systemctl start httpd
[root@RS1 Desktop]# /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-config.php
[root@RS1 Desktop]# vim /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-config.php  #关联wordpress数据库
    define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
    define('DB_USER', 'wpuser');
    define('DB_PASSWORD', '123456');
    define('DB_HOST', '10.10.0.21');
[root@RS1 Desktop]# scp /var/www/html/wordpress 10.10.0.22:/var/www/html/  #复制wordpress到22的主机

搭建RS2(RS2提供动态资源)
 
[root@RS2 Desktop]# yum -y httpd php-fpm php-mysql php-mbstring php-mcrypt
[root@RS2 Desktop]# vim /var/www/html/index.html
    <h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
[root@RS2 Desktop]# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf
    <virtualhost *:80>
        servername www.test.org
        DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
        Documentroot /var/www/html
        ProxyRequests off
        ProxyPassMatch ^/(.*\.php)$ fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000/var/www/html/$1
        ProxyPassMatch ^/(ping|status)$ fcgi://127.0.0.1:9000/$1
        <Directory />
            options FollowSymlinks
            Allowoverride none
            Require all granted
        </Directory>
    </virtualhost>
[root@RS2 Desktop]# systemctl start httpd
[root@RS2 Desktop]# vim /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
    listen = 0.0.0.0:9000
    ; listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1  #注释此句,允许其他主机远程访问
    pm.status_path = /status
    ping.path = /ping
    ping.response = pong
[root@RS2 Desktop]# chown apache:apache /var/lib/php/session
[root@RS2 Desktop]# systemctl start php-fpm

搭建DR1

[root@DR1 Desktop]# yum install -y nginx keepalived
[root@DR1 Desktop]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx/conf  #配置nginx反代
    http {
        ...
        upstream websrvs {
            server 10.10.0.21:80;
            server 10.10.0.22:80;
            server 127.0.0.1:80 backup;
        }
   
        server {
            listen 80;
            include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
            location / {
                proxy_pass http://websrvs;
                proxy_set_header host $http_host;
                proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $remote_addr;
            }
        ...
    }
[root@DR1 Desktop]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/localhost.conf  #配置nginx本地服务
    server{
        listen 127.0.0.1:80;
        root /usr/share/nginx/html;
        index index.html;
    }
[root@DR1 Desktop]# vim /usr/share/nginx/html/index.html
    <h1>Balance Server DR1</h1>
[root@DR1 Desktop]# nginx -t  #检查nginx语法
[root@DR1 Desktop]# systemctl start nginx
[root@DR1 Desktop]# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf  #配置keepalived
    global_defs {
      notification_email {
            root@localhost
      }
      notification_email_from keepalived@localhost
      smtp_server 127.0.0.1
      smtp_connect_timeout 30
      router_id dr1
      vrrp_skip_check_adv_addr
      vrrp_mcast_group4 224.0.0.111
    }
   
    vrrp_script chk_ngx {    #检查此服务器的nginx进程是否存在,如果不存在则减权
      #kill -0 PID,0信号量不发送任何信号但系统会进行错误检查,经常用来检查一个进程是否存在,存在返回0,不存在返回1
      script "killall -0 nginx 2> /dev/null && exit 0 || exit 1"
      weight -10
      interval 1
      fall 3
      rise 3
    }
   
    vrrp_instance VIP_1 {
        state MASTER
        interface eno16777736
        virtual_router_id 1
        priority 100
        advert_int 1
        authentication {
            auth_type PASS
            auth_pass 1111@#$%
        }
        track_script {
            chk_ngx
        }
        virtual_ipaddress {
            192.168.4.120/24 dev eno16777736 label eno16777736:0
        }
[root@DR1 Desktop]# systemctl start keepalived.service

搭建DR2,参考DR1自行搭建

客户端测试

[root@client Desktop]# for i in {1..20}; do curl http://192.168.4.120; done
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.21 server</h1>
<h1>10.10.0.22 server</h1>
[root@client Desktop]# ab -c 100 -n 10000 http://192.168.4.120/wordpress  #对动态页面进行压测
This is ApacheBench, Version 2.3 <$Revision: 1430300 $>
Copyright 1996 Adam Twiss, Zeus Technology Ltd, http://www.zeustech.net/
Licensed to The Apache Software Foundation, http://www.apache.org/

Benchmarking 192.168.4.120 (be patient)
Completed 1000 requests
Completed 2000 requests
Completed 3000 requests
Completed 4000 requests
Completed 5000 requests
Completed 6000 requests
Completed 7000 requests
Completed 8000 requests
Completed 9000 requests
Completed 10000 requests
Finished 10000 requests


Server Software:        nginx/1.12.2
Server Hostname:        192.168.4.120
Server Port:            80

Document Path:          /wordpress
Document Length:        239 bytes

Concurrency Level:      100
Time taken for tests:  4.685 seconds
Complete requests:      10000
Failed requests:        0
Write errors:          0
Non-2xx responses:      10000
Total transferred:      4600000 bytes
HTML transferred:      2390000 bytes
Requests per second:    2134.44 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request:      46.851 [ms] (mean)
Time per request:      0.469 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate:          958.83 [Kbytes/sec] received

Connection Times (ms)
              min  mean[+/-sd] median  max
Connect:        0    1  4.8      0      51
Processing:    10  45  7.4    46      67
Waiting:        1  44  7.8    46      67
Total:        12  47  6.5    46      89

Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
  50%    46
  66%    47
  75%    48
  80%    49
  90%    53
  95%    58
  98%    63
  99%    67
 100%    89 (longest request)

配置Varnish服务器

[root@Varnish Desktop]# yum install varnish
[root@Varnish Desktop]# vim /etc/varnish/varnish.params
    RELOAD_VCL=1
    VARNISH_VCL_CONF=/etc/varnish/default.vcl
    VARNISH_LISTEN_PORT=6081
    VARNISH_ADMIN_LISTEN_ADDRESS=10.10.0.23
    VARNISH_ADMIN_LISTEN_PORT=6082
    VARNISH_SECRET_FILE=/etc/varnish/secret
    VARNISH_STORAGE="file,/data/cache,1G"  #需要先创建好/data目录
    VARNISH_USER=varnish
    VARNISH_GROUP=varnish
[root@Varnish Desktop]# vim /etc/varnish/default.vcl  #修改配置文件,添加VCL规则
    vcl 4.0;
    import directors;
    probe web_healthchk {  #定义后端健康监测机制
        .url="/index.html";
        .interval=2s;
        .timeout=1s;
        .window=5;
        .threshold=3;
    }
    backend RS1 {  #定义后端RS1
        .host="10.10.0.21";
        .port="80";
        .probe=web_healthchk;
    }
    backend RS2 {  #定义后端RS2
        .host="10.10.0.22";
        .port="80";
        .probe=web_healthchk;
    }
    sub vcl_init {  #初始化服务器
        new WEBGROUP=directors.round_robin();
        WEBGROUP.add_backend(RS1);
        WEBGROUP.add_backend(RS2);
    }
    acl PURGERS {  #定义可用于purge操作的ip来源
        "127.0.0.1";
        "10.10.0.0"/24;
    }
    sub vcl_recv {
        if(req.http.Authorization ||  req.http.Cookie) {  #认证及cookie不缓存
            return(pass);
        }
        if(req.method != "GET" && req.method != "HEAD") {  #除了get和head以外的请求方法不缓存
            return(pass);
        }
        if(req.url ~ "index.php") {  #动态资源不缓存
            return(pass);
        }
        if(req.method == "PURGE") {  #purge方法清理缓存
            if(client.ip ~ PURGERS) {
                return(purge);
            }
        }
        if(req.http.X-Forward-For) {  #为发往后端主机添加的请求报文添加X-Forward-For的首部
            set req.http.X-Forward-For = req.http.X-Forward-For+","+client.ip;   
        }else {
            set req.http.X-Forward-For = client.ip;
        }
        set req.backend_hint = WEBGROUP.backend();  #调用服务器组
        return(hash);
    }
    sub vcl_hash {
        hash_data(req.url);
    }
    sub vcl_backend_response {  #自定义缓存时长
        if(bereq.url ~ "\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png)$") {
            set beresp.ttl = 1d;
        }
        if(bereq.url ~ "\.(html|css|js)$") {
            set beresp.ttl = 12h;
        }
        if(beresp.http.Set-Cookie) {
            set beresp.grace = 600s;
            return(deliver);
        }
    }
    sub vcl_deliver {
        if(obj.hits > 0) {  #为响应报文添加X-Cache的首部,标识缓存是否命中
            set resp.http.X-Cache = "Hit from "+server.ip;
        }else {
            set resp.http.X-Cache = "Miss";
        }
    }
[root@Varnish Desktop]# systemctl start varnish.service
[root@Varnish Desktop]# ss -tan
    State      Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port              Peer Address:Port             
    LISTEN    0      5      192.168.122.1:53                      *:*                 
    LISTEN    0      128          *:22                      *:*                 
    LISTEN    0      128    127.0.0.1:631                      *:*                 
    LISTEN    0      100    127.0.0.1:25                      *:*                 
    LISTEN    0      128          *:6081                    *:*                  
    LISTEN    0      10    10.10.0.23:6082                    *:*                  
    LISTEN    0      128        :::22                      :::*                 
    LISTEN    0      128        ::1:631                    :::*                 
    LISTEN    0      100        ::1:25                      :::*                 
    LISTEN    0      128        :::6081                    :::* 

修改DR1和DR2定义的代理服务器组(DR2的修改参考DR1)

[root@DR1 Desktop]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
...
    upstream websrvs {
        #server 10.10.0.21:80;
        #server 10.10.0.22:80;
        server 10.10.0.23:6081;  #转发到Varnish服务器
        server 127.0.0.1:80 backup;
    }
...
[root@DR2 Desktop]# systemctl reload nginx.service

客户端再次测试

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